Monday, December 7, 2009



Harvey Graham was born in the year 1827, in the State of Pennsylvania. He is an old resident of Iowa City, and entered the service from that place; but, of the time he first came to the State, I am unadvised. He is a mill-wright by trade.

Colonel Graham's connection with the volunteer service dates from the beginning of the war. He was one of the first men from Johnson county to enter the army, in the spring of 1861. He was the 1st Lieutenant of Company B, 1st Iowa Infantry, and commanded his company at the battle of Wilson's Creek, where he was slightly wounded. On the organization of the 22d Iowa Infantry, he was commissioned major of the regiment, and, a few days later, was promoted to the lieutenant-colonelcy, vice John A. Garrett, promoted to the colonelcy of the 40th Iowa. He served with his regiment as lieutenant-colonel till the resignation of Colonel, now Governor Stone, when he was commissioned colonel.

Subsequently to the fall of Vicksburg and up to July, 1864, the history of the 22d Iowa is much the same as are those of the 21st and 23d Iowa Regiments. It served in Louisiana, and on the Texan coast. But in July, 1864, it was one of the three Iowa regiments that were transferred to the Shenandoah Valley. At the time it sailed for that destination, there were other Iowa troops under orders for the same place; but the unsettled condition of affairs in Arkansas demanded their services, and the orders, as regarded them, were revoked.

The following is from the history of the 22d Iowa, which appears in the Adjutant-General's Reports for the year 1865:

"The 13th Army Corps having been temporarily discontinued by the War Department, the 22d Iowa was ordered to report to General Reynolds at New Orleans. Embarked on transports, reached New Orleans July 6th, and was ordered into camp at Algiers, Louisiana. Here was assigned to the Second Brigade of General Grover's (second) Division, 19th Army Corps. The Second Brigade consisted of the 131st and 159th New York, 13th Connecticut, and 3d Massachusetts Cavalry, and was afterward joined by the 22d Iowa and 11th Indiana, and was commanded by Colonel E. L. Molineaux, of the 159th New York.

"The 19th Army Corps, as reorganized, comprised three divisions: 1st, General Dwight's, composed of Eastern troops exclusively; 2d, General Grover's, of five Western regiments and the remainder Eastern troops; 3d, General Lawler's, of Western troops. The 1st and 2d Divisions having been ordered to report to Washington, D. C., the 22d Iowa, with the 131st and 159th New York, embarked on the 17th of July on the steamship Cahawba, and, after a voyage void of incident, arrived at Fortress Monroe on the 24th of July, and anchored in Hampton Roads. Weighed anchor on the 25th at eight A. M., and proceeded up James River. Dis-embarked at Bermuda Hundreds Landing, and after marching seven miles joined the forces of General Butler.

" The 22d Iowa, and 131st and 159th New York, being the only regiments of the division ordered to this place, the other portion of it having gone direct to Washington, they were temporarily attached to General Terry's Division of General Birney's Corps, and placed on duty in the trenches extending across the peninsula from the James to the Appomattox, occupying a portion of the line in General Butler's front until the 31st, when orders were received to report at Washington. Marched at two o'clock A. M., and reached Bermuda Hundreds Landing at day-light; embarked on transport Wenona, and steamed down the James river to Fortress Monroe and from thence up the Potomac to Washington, arriving at noon on the 1st of August.

From Washington the regiment marched to the Shenandoah, joining Sheridan at Berryville, at mid-night — August 18th. Sheridan was at the time falling back before Early; and, for a month after the arrival of the 19th Corps, he did little more than watch his opportunity and maneuver in the face of the enemy. Nor were his maneuvers fruitless; for, during this time, he parried Early's second contemplated raid into Pennsylvania. Finally, the rebel Kershaw's Division leaving Early for Richmond, Sheridan promptly assumed the offensive. He was at the time lying intrenched, near Berryville, while Early was on the west side of Opequan Creek, and near Winchester. The advance was begun before day-light on the morning of the 19th of September, over the Winchester and Berryville pike, and the enemy encountered across the Opequan, shortly before ten o'clock. The 6th Corps led the advance, or rather followed close on the heels of the cavalry, sent forward to open up a crossing over the Opequan.

The battle of Winchester or Opequan, says a captain of the 19th Corps who fought on the same ground with the 22d Iowa, was after this plan:

"A narrow ravine, winding among hills so steep and thickly wooded as to be impassable for any troops but light infantry, debouches into an irregular, undulating valley, faced on the south by an amphitheatre of stony hights, laid, with regard to each other, like detached fortifications. The object of Sheridan was to pass through this ravine, deploy in the valley, amuse the enemy's right, fight his centre vigorously, and turn and force his left. The object of Early was to allow us to deploy up to a certain extent; then to beat in our attacking columns, and throw them back in confusion on the line of advance; lastly, to ruin us by pushing his strong left through our right, and reaching the gorge, so as to cut off our retreat. To effect this final purpose, his line was not drawn up at right angles to the pike, but diagonally to it, so as to bring his left near to our vital debouching point."

The 6th Corps, as already stated, encountered the enemy about ten o'clock. Emerging from the ravine, they swung rapidly down against the enemy's right, in two lines of battle, and gained the position assigned, without much hard fighting. The position of the 19th Corps was in the centre, and the ground it was to take and hold involved the severest fighting of the day. It was to break back the rebel centre, and secure a position that would enable the 8th Corps to move up and against the enemy's left. It was the key to all positions — the place of supreme importance, which, if not taken, would insure a repulse, and, if not held when taken, would insure disastrous defeat.

The fighting had already begun, as the 22d Iowa neared the Opequan; and, as they pressed on at a rapid pace through the narrow, crowded highway, wounded men, lying pale and quiet upon their bloody stretchers, were frequently met. Soon the creek was reached and crossed, and line of battle formed, when the struggle with the 19th Corps began. The fortunes of the 22d Iowa in this battle were, I am told, the same as those of other regiments of its division. It was at first successful, driving the enemy back under one of the most destructive fires ever witnessed, and was then in turn as signally repulsed. Finally, it rallied, and when the enemy's left was assailed by the intrepid Crook, joined in pressing their centre to total rout. It was a dear, but most signal victory. I again quote from the history of the regiment: "It would be impossible to make any discrimination among officers or men for gallant and meritorious conduct in this action. The regiment never fought better. Not a man faltered or fell back, although it required more than momentary excitement to charge over a mile, and subjected to a heavy fire. None lacked the courage and determination to do so. Captain D. J. Davis, of Company A, and Captain B. D. Parks, Company E, were instantly killed at the head of their companies, and at the post of honor. Sergeant-Major George A. Remley, as noble as he was brave, was pierced with three balls, and fell dead. Lieutenant-Colonel E. G. White was slightly wounded in the face by the explosion of a shell. Lieutenant James A. Boarts was severely wounded in the head by a Minnie-ball, and has since died. Lieutenants Jones, of Company A, and Hull, of Company K, were both captured. Colonel Graham, Lieutenant-Colonel White, Major Gearkee, Captains Mullins, Humphrey, Cree, Clark, Shocker, Hartley and Morsman, and Lieutenants Turnbull, Davis, Needham, Messenger and Chandler, are all entitled to great praise for their gallantry throughout the battle in encouraging and rallying the men to the colors. Surgeon Shrader was on the field during the engagement, and was indefatigable in his exertions to care for the wounded. Quarter-master Sterling, Hospital-Steward Ealy, and Commissary-Sergeant Brown rendered efficient service in carrying off the wounded, and conducting the ambulances to different parts of the field, and can not be too highly commended. The total loss of the regiment in this action was one hundred and nine killed, wounded and missing."

Next came the pursuit and the engagement at Fisher's Hill, and then the pursuit to Harrisonburg. At Fisher's Hill, the regiment took a conspicuous part, charging in company with the 28th Iowa, and 128th New York, the strong works of the enemy, and capturing a six-gun battery and many prisoners.

The bloody and well-nigh disastrous affair at Cedar Creek, is thus given by Adjutant Samuel D. Pryce, the regiment's excellent historian:

"On the night of the 18th instant, the 22d Iowa, with the brigade under Colonel Mollineaux, was ordered to be ready to move at five o'clock on the coming morning, on a reconnoissance in the direction of Strasburg, to ascertain the force and develop the lines of the enemy. Accordingly, at the hour designated, the brigade was in line ready to move, when the enemy suddenly attacked the extreme left flank of the army, consisting of the 8th Corps, taking them completely by surprise, and routing them from their works, and before day-light had succeeded in throwing their entire army in the rear of the 6th and 19th Corps. At this juncture, the 22d Iowa was detached, and double-quicked one-half mile to save a battery from capture, and also to protect it until it could take up a new position. We had not, however, reached to within two hundred yards of the ground, when it was ascertained that the enemy had possession of the guns, and were charging over their works. The regiment opened fire, and held its ground against the force, checking their advance, but were obliged to fall back and join the brigade, to save being isolated and captured. In this retreat, the regiment retained its organization, and rallied four times alone, each time checking the advance of the enemy. The army fell back gradually for three miles in the direction of Winchester, when, General Sheridan arriving on the field, the troops re-formed, and preparations were made to retrieve the disaster of the morning. General Sheridan rode along the line, reviewed the troops, and then ordered an advance on the enemy's lines. In the advance, the Western regiments were formed together in one line, and the duty of changing the fortune of the day confided to their intrepid courage. The enemy met the advance with stubborn resistance, but were compelled to give way before the tremendous fighting of General Grover's Division of the 19th Corps. The enemy fell back to a line of breast-works, thrown up by them in the morning to provide against a reverse, where they attempted to make a stand to resist the fierce and determined attack of the Western troops, who, with a deafening cheer, again charged them, routing them from their breast-works, and driving them in confusion in every direction. The disaster of the morning had been turned into a victory, and the army, inspired with success, pursued the routed enemy, driving them through the camp occupied in the morning, and over Cedar Creek, capturing thousands of prisoners, and a great portion of their trains and artillery. The cavalry took up the pursuit, making heavy additional captures, rendering the defeat of the enemy the most disastrous during the campaign. The total loss of the regiment in this hardly-contested battle was seventy-seven killed, wounded and missing.

Among the wounded of the 22d Iowa, in the battle of Cedar Creek, were Captains L. F. Mullin, A. B. McCree and Charles Hartley, and Lieutenants E. F. Dudley and N. C. Messenger. Captain G. W. Clark was captured.

When Sherman left Savannah and Beaufort, on his march northward, the 22d Iowa, with its division, left the Shenandoah Valley for Eastern Georgia; but all the chief points of interest in the regiment's history have been already given.

SOURCE: Addison A. Stuart, Iowa Colonels and Regiments, p. 375-80

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