Sunday, August 18, 2019

Official Reports of the Campaign in North Alabama and Middle Tennessee, November 14, 1864 — January 23, 1865: No. 170. Report of Col. Phineas Pease, Forty-ninth Illinois Infantry, of operations December 15-16, 1864.

No. 170.

Report of Col. Phineas Pease, Forty-ninth Illinois Infantry,
of operations December 15-16, 1864.

In the Field, December 21, 1864.

LIEUTENANT: I have the honor to report that, in obedience to orders, on the morning of the 15th instant I moved my command outside the breast-works at Nashville, Tenn., and took position in line on the left of the Hardin pike. At 8 o'clock moved forward with right on the pike and on the right of the Fifty-second Indiana Volunteers. Advanced steadily, with slight skirmishing in front, and after passing through first skirt of timber moved in an oblique direction to the left. In the meantime had thrown out one company as skirmishers (Company A), which soon became engaged with the enemy's line of skirmishers. The regiment was then advanced to the open field to the right of the brick house, near which Battery G, Second Illinois Light Artillery, took position, where the regiment was ordered to lie down in a sheltered position. About 1 o'clock was ordered forward on right of brigade, and advancing through an open field to within 300 yards of one of the enemy's batteries were exposed to a raking artillery fire of grape and canister shot, also of musketry. At this point was ordered to halt, and in a few moments moved by the left flank under brow of the hill opposite rebel fort, which fort hi a short time was necessarily evacuated by the enemy. Moved from this point in right oblique direction across the Hillsborough pike, capturing one prisoner, of Trueheart's (Alabama) battery, and took position for the night a short distance on right of Granny White pike.

On morning of 16th moved at 8 o'clock across an open field to Granny White pike, where received orders to move in rear of and cover right of First Brigade, then advanced across a small creek to the foot of a hill, whence, in a short time, moved by the right flank, under cover of the hill, and joined on left of Second Brigade. Remained in this position several hours exposed to severe cannonading from the enemy. Soon after 3 o'clock received orders to advance, and together with the entire division charged the enemy's works, capturing Maj. Gen. Edward Johnson (General Johnson was captured by Private J. William Howell, Company B) and Major Trueheart, and sent to the rear, in charge of Lieutenant Spiro, thirty-five prisoners. Many other prisoners were turned back by the regiment and were picked up and credited to other brigades. It being now nearly dark took position in line for the night.

Inclosed is a list of casualties in my regiment during the action.*

I do not feel justified in particularizing where all did so well, for it would be giving the name of each and every officer in the regiment who participated in the engagement. It gives me pleasure to state that every officer performed his duty nobly and manifested great bravery. The enlisted men, with two or three exceptions, behaved well, with courage. To my field and staff officers — Lieut. Col. William P. Moore, Maj. Jacob E. Gauen, and Adjt. F. J. Burrows — I am particularly indebted for their untiring efforts, promptly obeying all orders given thereby rendering great assistance.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
P. PEASE,                 
Colonel, Commanding Forty-ninth Illinois Infantry Volunteers.
Lieut. J. D. COBINE,
Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

* Embodied in table, p. 101.

SOURCE: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volume 45, Part 1 (Serial No. 93), p. 493

Official Reports of the Campaign in North Alabama and Middle Tennessee, November 14, 1864 — January 23, 1865: No. 169. Report of Col. Edward H. Wolfe, Fifty-second Indiana Infantry, commanding Third Brigade, of operations December 15-16, 1864.

No. 169.

Report of Col. Edward H. Wolfe, Fifty-second Indiana Infantry, commanding Third Brigade,
of operations December 15-16, 1864.

Near Columbia, Tenn., December 23, 1864.

LIEUTENANT: In obedience to the orders of the general commanding division, I have the honor to transmit the following report as to the part taken by this brigade in the engagements with the enemy near Nashville, Tenn, on the 15th and 16th instant:

My brigade was in readiness to move on the morning of the 15th at 6 o'clock, as ordered the evening previous, and at 8 a.m. I moved by the flank outside of my works in front of Nashville, massing the brigade for the moment on the left of the Hardin pike. A portion of the One hundred and seventeenth Illinois Volunteers, Lieutenant-Colonel Merriam commanding, was deployed as skirmishers, covering my front and connecting on the left with skirmishers of First Brigade, Second Division, and on the right with skirmishers of First Division, my brigade occupying the extreme right of the Second Division. Soon afterward I deployed my column and advanced, connecting on the right and left as above indicated, holding one regiment (the One hundred and seventy-eighth New York Volunteers) in reserve, as ordered by the general commanding. My instructions, in advancing, were to keep well closed up to the left, and also to regulate my movements by that of the command on my right, so as to prevent, as far as possible, any serious gap in the line in that direction. The peculiar position of our lines on that day rendered it very difficult to comply with these instructions, and necessarily caused my advance to be slow and tedious. Soon after advancing my skirmishers became engaged, driving the enemy's skirmishers before them. At no time, however, during the day was my command engaged with the enemy, although my line was frequently exposed to the fire of the enemy, and the brigade on this day sustained a loss of 35 men, including 1 officer, a report of which will be inclosed herewith. Before the close of the day a movement on the part of the Fourth Corps, which charged the enemy's works, somewhat changed my position in the command, and, as I thought at the time, cut off the First and Second Brigades of this division, and to prevent the same thing, so far as my brigade was concerned, I advanced the brigade on the double-quick, as ordered by the general commanding, and did not halt until within the enemy's work in my front, which they abandoned without any resistance, except to our skirmishers. Three pieces of artillery here fell into our hands, which I understand are claimed in the captures of the Fourth Corps. These guns undoubtedly were captured by this division, and if not by my brigade in reality were captured by the skirmishers in my front, which at that time consisted of the Tenth Kansas Infantry, belonging to the Second Brigade of this division. Owing to our constant oblique movement to the left during the day, it was impossible to keep our respective skirmishers in their proper front. The result was, when a charge was made by General McArthur's division, on the right, and which resulted so victoriously, the skirmishers of my own brigade were in front of that division and participated in the engagement. The commanding officer of the One hundred and seventeenth Illinois, from whose regiment all my skirmishers on this day were deployed, states in his report that two of his companies then on the skirmish line captured 3 pieces of artillery and 40 prisoners, and delivered them over to that command as it came up. In the evening the position of my brigade was so changed, as before mentioned, as to throw me upon the extreme left of the division, closing up with the right of the Fourth Corps, and in this position I was ordered to encamp for the night.

On the morning of the 16th, at 7 o'clock, I was again ordered to advance, and, after advancing about a mile, was ordered to take position in the center of the division, where my brigade remained in line in front of the enemy's works until 3 p.m. During this time the enemy were constantly shelling my line, but the position of the ground in front was sufficient to protect the men, and but little loss was sustained. My orders during the afternoon were to again regulate my movements by that of the command on my right. At about 3.30 p.m. that portion of the command commenced its final advance upon the enemy's works. It required but a moment to put my brigade in motion, and the whole command, with a shout peculiar to this corps, advanced rapidly upon the works in front, carrying them with but momentary resistance and sustaining but slight loss. The enemy, surprised at the charge, and witnessing the courage and determination of the troops, fled in every direction, while many threw down their arms and surrendered at once. So completely surprised were the enemy in my front by the assault that they had time to deliver but two or three volleys, and these so poorly directed that but little execution was done. In this assault my brigade captured 5 pieces of artillery and a number of prisoners, including 8 commissioned officers, among whom was the rebel Maj. Gen. Edward Johnson, who was captured and escorted to the rear by Private J. William Howell, Company B, Forty-ninth Illinois Veteran Volunteers.

It is impossible, owing to the excitement and confusion at the time, to give any accurate statement as to the number of prisoners that actually fell into the hands of this brigade. Prisoners were sent to the rear indiscriminately, some with guards and others without, and, in addition to this, many were captured immediately at the works, and left without any guard, and a great many of them must certainly have fallen into the hands of other troops. It is, however, no exaggeration on my part to claim that at least 300 prisoners were captured by my brigade alone, and had I taken the precaution to have secured for the command all the prisoners that actually fell into my hands, I am satisfied it would exceed that number.

After advancing perhaps a mile in rear of the enemy's works, and there being no enemy in sight, I encamped for the night as ordered.

The exceeding small loss sustained by my brigade, compared to the victory gained, I consider unparalleled in the history of the war. My total loss during the two days' fight foots up 52, viz, 5 killed, 46 wounded, and I missing, a full and complete list of which, giving name, rank, date, &c., I inclose herewith.*

Inasmuch as all the batteries of this division were placed under the immediate control of Captain Lowell, G Battery, Second Illinois, acting as chief of artillery, during the two days, I have not referred to the action of my battery during either day, though I have personal knowledge of the valuable services rendered and the crushing execution done by this battery. The battery was engaged constantly during the two days, and the conduct of the officers and men at all times was such as to merit approval. Corpl. Samuel J. Churchill, of this battery, commanding one gun detachment, is highly commended for distinguished bravery displayed on the first day. At a time when two of the enemy's batteries opened upon his guns, compelling for a short time the men of his detachment to seek the protection of the ground, this young soldier stood manfully up to his work, and for some minutes worked his gun alone.

It has been customary heretofore to mention in reports of this character individual cases of meritorious conduct on the part of officers and soldiers, but this I now find it difficult to do, simply because to mention one would render it necessary to mention all. Every officer of my command and every enlisted man, with but few exceptions, performed their duties nobly, and all officers, realizing the importance of the hour, vied with each other in the gallant discharge of duty.

Of my commanding officers — Colonel Pease, of the Forty-ninth Illinois Veteran Volunteers; Lieutenant-Colonel Main, of the Fifty-second Indiana Veteran Volunteers; Lieutenant-Colonel Merriam, One hundred and seventeenth Illinois Volunteers; and Captain Gandolfo, One hundred and seventy-eighth New York Volunteers — I cannot speak too highly. The manner in which they commanded their respective regiments during these movements, as well as elsewhere, has only demonstrated their ability as excellent officers and their courage and bravery as soldiers.

To the officers of my staff — Lieutenant Cobine, acting assistant adjutant-general; Lieutenant Rupe, acting assistant inspector-general; and Lieutenant Kobbe, of the One hundred and seventy-eighth New York Volunteers, acting aide-de-camp — I am largely indebted for valuable services rendered upon this occasion, and commend them for the zeal and courage they have displayed in the discharge of their duties throughout the campaign thus far.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
E. H. WOLFE,                       
Colonel, Commanding.
Lieut. J. B. COMSTOCK,
Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

* Embodied in table, p. 101.

SOURCE: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volume 45, Part 1 (Serial No. 93), p. 490-2

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Official Reports of the Campaign in North Alabama and Middle Tennessee, November 14, 1864 — January 23, 1865: No. 168. Report of Lieut. Thomas J. Ginn, Third Battery Indiana Light Artillery, of operations December 15-16, 1864.

No. 168.

Report of Lieut. Thomas J. Ginn, Third Battery Indiana Light Artillery,
of operations December 15-16, 1864.

In the Field, Tenn., December 21, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report of the part taken by my command in the battles with the enemy, December 15 and 16, near Nashville, Tenn.:

At 6 a.m. December 15 I was ordered by Col. James I. Gilbert, commanding brigade, to move with my command outside of the earthworks and take a position in line of battle with the Second Brigade, Second Division, Detachment Army of the Tennessee. I kept my position and advanced with the brigade, but took no part in the action of the day for want of a suitable position. I bivouacked in line of battle, with the brigade, at 7 p.m., some two miles outside of the line of defensive works encircling the city.

On the morning of the 16th of December my command began to advance with the line and Second Brigade, Second Division, about 8 a.m. After advancing about a mile the enemy began to shell me from a covered position at a distance of over a mile. I immediately moved my battery into position at a double-quick, by order of Colonel Gilbert, commanding Second Brigade, and opened fire upon the enemy's battery, from an open field, at a distance of three-quarters of a mile, and continued firing rapidly until my ammunition (excepting canister) was entirely exhausted. About 1 p.m., having received a fresh supply of ammunition, I received orders from Brigadier-General Garrard, commanding Second Division, Detachment Army of the Tennessee, to move my battery about 400 yards farther to the left and immediately on the left of the Ninth Indiana Battery, where we expended about sixty rounds of ammunition. I was next ordered by Captain Lowell, chief of artillery Second Division, Detachment Army of the Tennessee, to take a position about 100 yards to the right of my last position and immediately on the right of Battery G, Second Illinois Artillery, where we expended about sixty rounds of ammunition upon the rebel battery directly in our front. From thence we were ordered by Major-General Smith to a position on the left of the Second Brigade, Second Division, and opened fire with three guns upon the battery just to the left of the Granny White pike, and with the remaining three upon the rebel battery in front of the Third Brigade, Second Division, and continued our fire, from a very much exposed position, until about 3.30 p.m., when the final charge by our infantry was made which resulted in the silencing of the rebel batteries.

The only casualty I have to report is the wounding of a noncommissioned officer very slightly.

The total number of rounds fired by my battery during the day is 923 shell, case, and solid shot.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
T. J. GINN,                
First Lieutenant, Third Indiana Battery, Commanding Company.
Lieut. W. G. DONNAN,
Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

SOURCE: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volume 45, Part 1 (Serial No. 93), p. 489-90

Official Reports of the Campaign in North Alabama and Middle Tennessee, November 14, 1864 — January 23, 1865: No. 167. Report of Capt. William C. Jones, Tenth Kansas Infantry, of operations December 15-16, 1864.

No. 167.

Report of Capt. William C. Jones, Tenth Kansas Infantry,
of operations December 15-16, 1864.

December 20, 1864.

LIEUTENANT: I have the honor to report the part taken by the Tenth Kansas Veteran Volunteer Infantry in the battle of Nashville, December 15 and 16, 1864.

On the evening of the 14th instant I received orders from brigade headquarters to move the following morning at 6 o'clock, with three days' rations in haversacks and one blanket to the man. The command was immediately put in readiness to move, in compliance therewith. At a few minutes after 6 o'clock on the morning of the 15th instant I received orders from Lieut. W. G. Donnan, acting assistant adjutant-general, to move my command to the skirmish line and relieve the three companies then on that duty. I at once moved to the front and relieved them as directed, placing thirty men on the right, under Lieut. George W. May, and fifty more of Company B on the left, under command of Lieut. J. E. Thorpe, holding in reserve Company A, numbering seventy-seven men, twenty of Company B, and eight of Company C, all under the command of Capt. George D. Brooke. At 9 a.m. I received orders from Lieutenant Eisenhart, aide-de-camp, to advance my line as soon as the skirmishers of the brigade on my right came into line. I ordered my line forward, moving to the front without opposition for about 100 yards, when we came within range of the enemy's skirmishers, which for a moment checked the advance of my line; but soon the enemy found shelter behind fences and logs, and [we] quickly dislodged the enemy's skirmishers from their intrenched position. My line then advanced, driving them back to their reserve and to within 400 yards of their main works, where we were again checked. I accordingly ordered the line re-enforced by thirty men, under command of Lieut. John Bryan, which, being thus strengthened, advanced, driving the rebel skirmishers into their line of intrenchments, which, being reached, his main line opened with canister, grape, and musketry upon us. I then ordered the line re-enforced by seventy-five men of Company A, under command of Lieut. R. W. Wood. As soon as the line was strengthened the men found shelter behind trees and stumps, about 200 yards from the enemy's line of works, so that they had perfect range upon that portion of his works in my front, completely silencing his battery which had given me so much trouble. I held this position until 4 p.m., when the main line came up. I then drew off my skirmishers and joined my brigade, which I found about three-quarters of a mile to my left. My loss was 19 wounded.

Surg. H. D. Tuttle was ordered by the brigade surgeon in the morning to go to the front with a train of ambulances.

On the morning of the 16th I was ordered by Lieut. William G. Donnan, acting assistant adjutant-general, to form my command fifty paces in rear of the brigade. When the advance was ordered I moved the Tenth Kansas, in obedience to the above instructions, until the brigade was halted under the shelter of a hill from the enemy's artillery. I then moved my command to within ten yards of the rear of the brigade, where we lay under fire of the enemy's guns until 4 o'clock, when the charge was ordered, when the men sprang to their feet and advanced on a double-quick until the enemy's parapets were scaled, following the routed foe to the foot of the mountains, about three-quarters of a mile in rear of his works. My loss was 5 men wounded.

Lieut. F. A. Sinalley deserves great credit for his services and encouragement to the men.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. C. JONES,                       
Captain, Commanding Regiment.
Lieut. W. G. DONNAN,
Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

SOURCE: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volume 45, Part 1 (Serial No. 93), p. 488-9

Official Reports of the Campaign in North Alabama and Middle Tennessee, November 14, 1864 — January 23, 1865: No. 166. Report of Lieut. Col. Gustavus A. Eberhart, Thirty-second Iowa Infantry, of operations December 15-16, 1864.

No. 166.

Report of Lieut. Col. Gustavus A. Eberhart, Thirty-second Iowa Infantry,
of operations December 15-16, 1864.

In the Field, December 21, 1864.

LIEUTENANT: Of the part taken by the Thirty-second Iowa Infantry in the battle of the 15th and 16th instant, I have the honor to report as follows:

At 6 a.m. on the 15th, in obedience to orders from brigade headquarters, I formed the regiment on the right of the brigade, with my left resting on the Fifty-eighth Illinois Infantry. The regiment advanced in line of battle for more than a mile, slowly wheeling to the left, conforming to the movement of the line on our right. From 11 a.m. until 4 p.m. we lay under artillery fire from a battery 1,000 yards in our front. When the works were carried by the forces in front we moved forward about one mile and a half, when we were ordered to go into camp for the night. The regiment was not brought into close action, and suffered no loss.

On the morning of the 16th we were again on the right of the brigade, our right resting on the left of the First Division. The advance was ordered about 7 a.m., the line wheeling to the right to confront the enemy's works. When within about 1,200 yards we came in full view of the enemy, drawing upon us a brisk fire from their battery, under which the men moved forward with commendable coolness. The First Division contracting in order to form two lines we were thrown by the flank to the right about half a mile. At this point we lay under fire of the enemy's artillery for about five hours. At 3.30 p.m. the right of the First Division carried the left of the enemy's works; we then moved forward at a double-quick over an open field, under a severe fire from artillery and musketry, and in a few minutes gained the intrenchments, capturing about 50 prisoners and 5 pieces of artillery. Some of the artillerists were killed as they were leaving the guns. Private William May, of Company H, dashed forward and captured the battery guidon. The regiment moved forward in pursuit, gathering a few prisoners, until we reached the base of the mountain, when we received orders to halt. At dark, the battle being over, we were ordered into camp near the mountain.

Too much cannot be said in praise of the conduct of the officers and men under the heavy fire during the charge; every one moved forward with a determination to carry the works.

Where all behaved so creditably it is a delicate matter to make particular mention of persons, but I presume no exceptions will be taken when I speak of Lieut. W. L. Carpenter, acting regimental adjutant, who was, as usual, conspicuous for his brave and gallant conduct in the action, and was among the first over the rebel works. Also, Capt. Theodore De Tar, commanding Company D, who, after pursuing the enemy to the mountain, was wounded in the right ankle, making an amputation necessary. This will cause the loss to the regiment of an officer who has always been esteemed for his excellent qualities as an officer and a gentleman. First Sergt. Daniel W. Albaugh, Company C, who was killed almost instantly by a minie-ball, was one of our best non-commissioned officers, and was much loved by his company as an officer and comrade. They mourn his loss deeply. My thanks are due Maj. Jonathan Hutchison for his assistance during the action.

I cannot refrain from mentioning Color-Sergt. A. J. Ellis, of Company G, who carried the standard. Although once thrown to the ground by a glancing shot he refused to give the standard to any one else, but made his way forward and was one of the first over the works. Corporal Bell, of Company G, who bore the regimental colors, was noticed for his bravery in action.

I send herewith a list of casualties* in the regiment, which is light, only because the artillery was aimed too high, and the infantry intimidated by our rapid firing as we advanced.

Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,
G. A. EBERHART,               
Lieutenant-Colonel, Commanding Regiment.
Lieut. W. G. DONNAN,
Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

* Embodied in table, p. 101.

SOURCE: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volume 45, Part 1 (Serial No. 93), p. 486-7

Friday, August 16, 2019

In The Review Queue: Lincoln's Gettysburg Address

By A. E. Elmore

While it has long been determined that Abraham Lincoln’s writings were influenced by the King James Bible, until now no full-length study has shown the precise ways in which the Gettysburg Address uses its specific language. Refuting the view that the address was crafted with traditional classical references, this revealing investigation provides a new way to think about the speech and the man who wrote it. A. E. Elmore offers chapter and verse evidence from the Bible as well as specific examples from the Episcopal Book of Common Prayer to illustrate how Lincoln borrowed from these sources to imbue his speech with meanings that would resonate with his listeners. He cites every significant word and phrase—conceived, brought forth, struggled, remaining, consecrate, dedicate, hallow, devotion, new birth, to name a few—borrowed by Lincoln from these two religious texts for use in his dedication of the Gettysburg National Cemetery.

 Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address focuses on a number of overlooked themes and ideas, such as the importance of literary allusion and the general public’s knowledge of the Bible in the age of Lincoln. It provides fresh answers to old questions and poses new questions: Was Lincoln a common thief who made use of words from previously published materials as well as from works by his contemporaries? Was he a genius whose literary and political skills were unmatched? No one who reads this highly engaging study will ever think about Lincoln or the Gettysburg Address the same way again.

About the Author

A former trial lawyer and professor of law and literature, A. E. Elmore (1938–2016) contributed essays to a number of books, including American Fiction: Form and Function and The Vanderbilt Tradition, among others.

ISBN 978-0809335602, Southern Illinois University Press, © 2017, Paperback, 280 pages, End Notes, Works Cited & Index. $22.50.  To purchase this book click HERE.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

2nd Battalion Missouri State Militia Cavalry

Organized at Harrisville and Kansas City, Mo., March 17 to May 5, 1862. Attached to District of Central Missouri, Dept. of Missouri. Scout to Little Manqua, near Quincy, and skirmish April, 1862. Scout to Monticello, Vernon County, and to Shiloh Camp, on Boyle's Run, April 9-16. Pink Hill April 11. Montevallo April 14. Near Independence May 15-17. Surrender of Independence August 11 (Detachment). Action at Lone Jack August 16. At Lexington and in District of Central Missouri till March, 1863. Grand Prairie October 24. Expedition into Southeast Missouri and North Arkansas November 8-13. Affairs in Jackson and Lafayette Counties November 26-29. Mustered out March 31, 1863.

Battalion lost during service 3 Officers and 48 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 1 Officer and 109 Enlisted men by disease. Total 161.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1304

2nd Missouri State Militia Cavalry

Organized in Missouri at large December, 1861, to April, 1862, and by consolidation of original 2nd and 11th Regiments, State Militia Cavalry. Attached to District of Northern Missouri, Dept. of Missouri, to March, 1863. District of St. Louis, Mo., Dept. of Missouri, to June, 1863. District of Southeast Missouri, Dept. of Missouri, to July, 1863. District of St. Louis, Mo., Dept. of Missouri, to April, 1865.

SERVICE. — Walkerville, Mo., April 2 and 14, 1862. Cherry Grove June 26. Near Newark July 7. Whaley's Mills August 1. Kirksville August 6 (Detachment). Near Stockton August 8 (Detachment). Near Bragg's Farm September 13. Bloomfield March 1-2, 1863. Expedition from Bloomfield to Chalk Bluff, Ark., and to Gum Slough, etc., Mo., and skirmishes March 9-15. Chalk Bluff March 9 and 15. Gum Slough March 16. Scout to Doniphan March 19-23. Near Doniphan March 21. Scouts from Bloomfield to Scatterville, Ark., March 25-April 1. Chalk Bluff April 1. Operations against Marmaduke April 21-May 2. Cape Girardeau April 26. Castor River, near Bloomfield, April 29. Bloomfield April 29-30. Chalk Bluff, St. Francis River, April 30-May 1. Round Ponds August 1 (Detachment). Scout from Cape Girardeau to Poplar Bluff August 9-18 (1st Battalion). Ash Hill August 3 (Detachment). Expedition from Cape Girardeau to Pilot Knob and Pocohontas, Ark., August 17-26. Pocohontas, Ark., August 22-23. Expedition to Big Lake, Mississippi County, Ark., September 7-30, Expedition from Pilot Knob to Oregon County and to Pocohontas, Ark., September 29-October 6 (Detachment). Scout from Cape Girardeau to Doniphan and Pocohontas October 26-November 12. Expedition from Cape Girardeau to Clarkton October 26-November 15 (Detachment). Attack on Bloomfield and pursuit to Brown's Ferry, Ark., November 29-30. Halcora Island February 2, 1864 (Detachment). Cape Girardeau February 5. Near Charleston February 15 (Detachment). Near Bloomfield April 1. Scout from Bloomfield May 6. Sykestown June 7. Near St. James June 10. Expedition from New Madrid to Carruthersville July 5-10 (Detachment). Bloomfield July 14. Operations in Southeast Missouri and Northeast Arkansas July 18-August 6. Scatterville, Ark., July 28 (Detachment). Osceola, Ark., August 2. Elkchute August 4 (Detachment). Near Homersville and Gayoso September 8 (Detachment). Sykestown September 22. Ironton September 26. Shut in Gap and Arcadia Valley september 26. Fort Davidson, Pilot Knob, September 26-27 (Co. "K"). Leesburg or Harrison September 28-29 and October 1. Scout in Pemiscot County and skirmish October 10-12 (Detachment). Little Blue October 21. Independence, Big Blue and State Line October 22. Westport October 23. Engagement at the Marmiton or battle of Chariot October 25. Mine Creek, Little Osage River, Mafias des Cygnes, October 25. West Point October 26. Operations in Mississippi County, Ark., November 5-6 (Detachment). Sikestown November 6 (Detachment). Scout in Pemiscot County and skirmish November 13-16 (Detachment). Near New Madrid December 3 (Detachment). Cypress Swamp, near Cape Girardeau, December 14 (Detachments). Expedition from Cape Girardeau and Dallas to Cherokee Bay and St. Francis River, Ark., with skirmish, December 20, 1864-January 4, 1865. Near Carruthersville December 30, 1864. Expedition from Bloomfield to Poplar Bluff January 4-16 (Detachment). Expedition from Cape Girardeau to Eleven Points River, Ark., January 24-February 22. Mississippi County February 13 (Co. "B"). Expedition from Bloomfield into Dunklin County March 3-7 (Detachment). Near Bloomfield March 3. Dunklin County March 4. Bloomfield March 7 (Detachment). Scout from Cape Girardeau to Bolinger, Stoddard and Wayne Counties March 9-15 (Co. "F"). Mustered out April 20, 1865.

Regiment lost during service 18 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 1 Officer and 88 Enlisted men by disease. Total 107.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1303-4

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

In The Review Queue: Abraham Lincoln as a Man of Ideas

By Allen C. Guelzo

Abraham Lincoln was a skilled politician, an inspirational leader, and a man of humor and pathos.  What many may not realize is how much he was also a man of ideas. Despite the most meager of formal educations, Lincoln’s tremendous intellectual curiosity drove him into the circle of Enlightenment philosophy and democratic political ideology. And from these, Lincoln developed a set of political convictions that guided him throughout his life and his presidency. Abraham Lincoln as a Man of Ideas, a compilation of ten essays from Lincoln scholar, Allen C. Guelzo, uncovers the hidden sources of Lincoln’s ideas and examines the beliefs that directed his career and brought an end to slavery and the Civil War.

These essays reveal Lincoln to be a man of impressive intellectual probity and depth as well as a man of great contradictions. He was an apostle of freedom who did not believe in human free will; a champion of the Constitution who had to step outside of it in order to save it; a man of many acquaintances and admirers, but few friends; a man who opposed slavery but also opposed the abolition of it; a man of prudence who took more political risks than any other president.

Guelzo explores the many faces of Lincoln’s ideas, and especially the influence of the Founding Fathers and the great European champions of democracy. And he links the 16th president’s struggles with the issues of race, emancipation, religion, and civil liberties to the challenges these issues continue to offer to Americans today.

Lincoln played many roles in his life—lawyer, politician, president—but in each he was driven by a core of values, convictions, and beliefs about economics, society, and democracy. Abraham Lincoln as a Man of Ideas is a broad and exciting survey of the ideas that made Lincoln great, just as we celebrate the bicentennial his birth.

About the Author

Allen C. Guelzo, the author of Lincoln and Douglas: The Debates That Defined America, is the Henry R. Luce Professor of the Civil War Era at Gettysburg College. He is a three-time winner of the Lincoln Prize, for Abraham Lincoln: Redeemer President (2000), Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation: The End of Slavery in America (2005), and Gettysburg: The Last Invasion (2013), the last of which was a New York Times best seller.

ISBN 978-0809335824, Southern Illinois University Press, © 2016, Paperback, 230 pages, , End Notes after each chapter & Index. $22.50.  To purchase this book click HERE.

Diary of Laura M. Towne: Sunday, June 9, 1862

This afternoon the cotton agent, or rather the sutler, Mr. Whiting, and his little wife, left the place. We are so glad to have their half of the house. Mr. Pierce left with me an injunction that they should take away none of the furniture, and they left most of it. Mr. Elmendorff gave into my charge some things which he should claim should he come again, but he has only the right of prior seizure to them.

To-night we all went to Rina's house where the people had a "shout," which Mr. McKim was inclined to think was a remnant of African worship.

SOURCE: Rupert Sargent Holland, Editor, Letters and Diary of Laura M. Towne: Written from the Sea Islands of South Carolina 1862-1864, p. 66-7

Diary of Laura M. Towne: Sunday, June 11, 1862

We four girls rode to “Mary Jenkins[’ plantation],”  where the children screamed and ran to hide at the sight of white faces. Dr. Hering sent a consignment of looking-glasses for distribution, and Mr. Hastings a number of bags of salt, etc., etc.

SOURCE: Rupert Sargent Holland, Editor, Letters and Diary of Laura M. Towne: Written from the Sea Islands of South Carolina 1862-1864, p. 67

Senator Charles Sumner to Governor John A. Andrew, May 29, 1862

The whole trouble is directly traceable to McClellan, who took away to Yorktown an amount of troops beyond what he was authorized to do, so as to leave Washington defenceless. When the Prest. became aware of this, he was justly indignant. I have seen his letter of rebuke to McClellan in his own autograph under date of 9th April, to which McC has never deigned to reply. Should this letter ever see the light it will reflect honor upon the calmness, sagacity, and firmness of the Prdt. If published now it would crush McC.

SOURCE: Henry Greenleaf Pearson, The Life of John A. Andrew: Governor of Massachusetts, 1861-1865, Volume 2, p. 22

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

John L. Motley to Anna Lothrop Motley, January 27, 1864

January 27, 1864.

My Dearest Mother: Since I last wrote I have had the pleasure of receiving your kind letter of 28th December. Although I regret to find that you are still so much a sufferer from neuralgia and rheumatism, it is a great satisfaction that your eyesight is so much improved, and that you are able to read as much as you like.

Fortunately you have it in your power to see all the new books, whereas we are obliged very much to do without them. Vienna is probably the city in the world where the least reading is done in proportion to the population, and the most dancing. Yet, strange to say, in the upper society there are but very few balls this carnival. Lily wrote you an account of ours, and on the following week there was a ball at the French ambassador's, the Duc de Gramont.

The society is so small that this seems to suffice. I shall add but little concerning our festivity. It was a tremendous undertaking in the prospect, and Mary excited my special wonder by the energy and completeness with which she superintended the arrangements. Our head servant, being an incapable donkey, was an obstruction rather than a help, and the only real lieutenant that she had was ———, who was all energy and intelligence. Lily, who thoroughly understands the society of Vienna, was, of course, all in all in regard to the actual business of the ball, and we had an excellent and amiable ally in young Prince Metternich, who was the managing director. Well, at least we are rewarded for the trouble and expense by success, for I cannot doubt, so much we have heard about it, that it gave very great satisfaction to the said upper three hundred, that noble Spartan band who so heroically defend the sacred precincts of fashion against the million outsiders who in vail assail it. I have said more about this trifling matter than you may think interesting. But to say the truth, I preferred that exactly in this state of our affairs the house of the American minister should be one whose doors were occasionally open, rather than to be known as a transatlantic family who went everywhere but who were never known to invite a soul within their walls. For me personally it is harder work than writing a dozen despatches.

There is, I think, but little of stirring intelligence to be expected from the United States before March or April, but I have settled down into a comfortable faith that this current year 1864 is to be the last of military operations on a large scale. To judge from the history of the past two and a half years, it will not take another twelvemonth for our forces to get possession of what remains of rebel cities and territory, or, at any rate, to vanquish the armed resistance to such an extent that what remains of the insurrection will be reduced to narrow and manageable compass. In another year or two, I am now convinced, there will be neither slaveholders nor rebels — which terms are synonymous. The future will be more really prosperous than the past has ever been, for the volcano above which we have been living in a fool's paradise of forty years, dancing and singing, and imagining ourselves going ahead, will have done its worst, and spent itself, I trust forever. In Europe affairs are looking very squally. The war has almost begun, and the first can non-shot, I suppose, will be heard on the Eider before the middle of February. At least, from the best information I can gather from German, Danish, and other sources, the conflict has become inevitable. If diplomacy does succeed in patching up matters in the next fortnight, it will show better skill in joiner's work than it has manifested of late years on any other occasion. We have at least the advantage of being comparatively secure from interference.

SOURCE: George William Curtis, editor, The Correspondence of John Lothrop Motley, Volume III, p. 2-4 

John L. Motley to Anna Lothrop Motley, January 31, 1864

January 31. I shall bring the "United Netherlands" to an end by the end of this year. But how I shall feel when I come out of that mine where I have been delving so many years I can scarcely imagine. I shall feel like a man who has worked out his twenty years in the penitentiary, and who would on the whole prefer to remain. Good-by, my dearest mother, and, with my most earnest prayers for your health and happiness,

I am your affectionate son,
J. L. M.

SOURCE: George William Curtis, editor, The Correspondence of John Lothrop Motley, Volume III, p. 4 

Monday, August 12, 2019

Brigadier-General Benjamin F. Butler to Simon Cameron, April 30, 1861

Department of Annapolis, April 30th, 1861
The Secretary of War

DEAR SIR: I am annoyed to death with the continual call for passage. To check it I have established a tariff of $4.00 from Washington to Perryville, except those upon official business, and I hope this number will be limited by the department, as the number now interferes with the transportation of troops.

Will you allow me to suggest that we are getting yeoman service from S. M. Felton, Esq. President of the Phila. & Wil. Railroad. Will you not by an order put this whole matter of transportation by this line under his direction, subject to my order for military purposes. Mr. Felton took the responsibility of giving me sole charge of the Maryland Steamer by means of which a landing could be effected. He is efficient and true as steel.

I am constructing a short piece of railroad for the connection of tide water with Washington. I have the material now and trust to be able to have it in order in ten days.

Respectfully, Your obedient servant,

SOURCE: Jessie Ames Marshall, Editor, Private and Official Correspondence of Gen. Benjamin F. Butler During the Period of the Civil War, Volume 1: April 1860 – June 1862, p. 57-8

Diary of William Howard Russell: July 19, 1861

I rose early this morning in order to prepare for contingencies and to see off Captain Johnson, who was about to start with despatches for New York, containing, no doubt, the intelligence that the Federal troops had advanced against the enemy. Yesterday was so hot that officers and men on the field suffered from something like sun-stroke. To unaccustomed frames to-day the heat felt unsupportable. A troop of regular cavalry, riding through the street at an early hour, were so exhausted, horse and man, that a runaway cab could have bowled them over like ninepins.

I hastened to General Scott's quarters, which were besieged by civilians outside and full of orderlies and officers within. Mr. Cobden would be delighted withthe republican simplicity of the Commander-in-Chief's establishment, though it did not strike me as being very cheap at the money on such an occasion. It consists, in fact, of a small three-storied brick house, the parlors on the ground floor being occupied by subordinates, the small front room on the first floor being appropriated to General Scott himself, the smaller back-room being devoted to his staff, and two rooms up-stairs most probably being in possession of waste papers and the guardians of the mansion. The walls are covered with maps of the coarsest description, and with rough plans and drawings, which afford information and amusement to the orderlies and the stray aide-de-camps. "Did you ever hear anything so disgraceful in your life as the stories which are going about of the affair, yesterday?" said Colonel Cullum. “I assure you it was the smallest affair possible, although the story goes that we have lost thousands of men. Our total loss is under ninety — killed, wounded, and missing; and I regret to say nearly one third of the whole are under the latter head.” “However that may be, Colonel,” said I, “it will be difficult to believe your statement after the columns of type which appear in the papers here.” “Oh! Who minds what they say?” “You will admit, at any rate, that the retreat of these undisciplined troops from an encounter with the enemy will have a bad effect.” “Well, I suppose that's likely enough, but it will soon be swept away in the excitement of a general advance. General Scott, having determined to attack the enemy, will not halt now, and I am going over to Brigadier McDowell to examine the ground and see what is best to be done,” On leaving the room two officers came out of General Scott's apartment; one of them said, “Why, Colonel, he's not half the man I thought him. Well, any way he'll be better there than McDowell. If old Scott had legs he's good for a big thing yet.”

For hours I went horse-hunting; but Rothschild himself, even the hunting Baron, could not have got a steed. In Pennsylvania Avenue the people were standing in the shade under the ӕlanthus trees, speculating on the news brought by dusty orderlies, or on the ideas of passing congressmen. A party of captured Confederates, on their march to General Mansfield's quarters, created intense interest, and I followed them to the house, and went up to see the General, whilst the prisoners sat down on the pavement and steps outside. Notwithstanding his affectation of calm, and self-possession, General Mansfield, who was charged with the defence of the town, was visibly perturbed. “These things, sir,” said he, “happen in Europe, too. If the capital should fall into the hands of the rebels, the United States will be no more destroyed than they were when you burned it.” From an expression he let fall, I inferred he did not very well know what to do with his prisoners. “Rebels taken in arms in Europe are generally hung or blown away from guns, I believe; but we are more merciful.” General Mansfield evidently wished to be spared the embarrassment of dealing with prisoners.

I dined at a restaurant kept by one Boulanger, a Frenchman, who utilized the swarms of flies infesting his premises by combining masses of them with his soup and made dishes. At an adjoining table were a lanky boy in a lieutenant's uniform, a private soldier, and a man in plain clothes; and for the edification of the two latter the warrior youth was detailing the most remarkable stories in the Munchausen style, ear ever heard. “Well, sir, I tell you, when his head fell off on the ground, his eyes shut and opened twice, and his tongue came out with an expression as if he wanted to say something.” “There were seven balls through my coat, and it was all so spiled with blood and powder, I took it off and threw it in the road. When the boys were burying the dead, I saw this coat on a chap who had been just smothered by the weight of the killed and wounded on the top of him, and I says, ‘Boys, give me that coat; it will just do for me with the same rank; and there is no use in putting good cloth on a dead body.’” “And how many do you suppose was killed, Lieutenant?” “Well, sir, it's my honest belief, I tell you, that there was not less than 5000 of our boys, and it may be twice as many of the enemy, or more; they were all shot down just like pigeons; you might walk for five rods by the side of the Run, and not be able to put your foot on the ground.” “The dead was that thick?” “No, but the dead and the wounded together.” No incredulity in the hearers — all swallowed: possibly disgorged into the note-book of a Washington contributor.

After dinner I walked over with Lieutenant H. Wise, inspected a model of Stevens's ram, which appears to me an utter impossibility in face of the iron-clad embrasured fleet now coming up to view, though it is spoken of highly by some naval officers and by many politicians. For years their papers have been indulging in mysterious volcanic puffs from the great centre of nothingness as to this secret and tremendous war-engine, which was surrounded by walls of all kinds, and only to be let out on the world when the Great Republic in its might had resolved to sweep everything off the seas. And lo! it is an abortive ram! Los Gringos went home, and I paid a visit to a family whose daughters — bright-eyed, pretty, and clever — were seated out on the door-steps amid the lightning flashes, one of them, at least, dreaming with open eyes of a young artillery-officer then sleeping among his guns, probably, in front of Fairfax Court House.

SOURCE: William Howard Russell, My Diary North and South, Vol. 1, p. 431-3

Meaning of the Term Forever.

That the term forever, when used to denote the continuance of their bondage is not to be taken in its absolute sense, is evident from the very nature of the case. Neither these servants nor their masters could abide forever by reason of death. Nor was the institution by means of successive generations always to be perpetuated, inasmuch as the entire frame work of the Hebrew government, which sanctioned it, has been demolished for more that eighteen centuries; and will never be revived. The term forever was used to distinguish, strongly, the stated continuance of this servitude from that of the hired servants, which might be but for a day or two; and also from that of the poor Hebrews, sold to their brethren for debts, who could not be detained against their consent over six years. It is very well known that while the Hebrew term alam (or gnolam,) forever, when applied to subjects which do not necessarily require its limitation, denotes endless duration; it, in other cases, may and does mean a duration continued for some term limited by the nature of the subject to which it is applied, or otherwise fixed by the connection in which it stands. It is used in this limited way in reference to the duration of the material world, the continuance of a nation, and even the time of an individual's natural life. It is said, Deut. 15:17, with respect to the Hebrew who had served his term of six years and still chose to remain with his master, “Thou shalt take an awl and [thrust] it through his ear, unto the door, and he shall be thy servant forever. That is as long as he lived, provided the occurrence of the year of jubilee should not sooner set free both him and his family on whose account he had chosen to remain, for it is universally admitted that all such Hebrew servants were on those occasions released from their bonds. In the same way do we understand the term when applied to the continuance of the servitude of the foreigners. They were to continue in servitude as long as they lived unless sooner set free by the return of the year of general release; which occurred only at the termination of every half century. We have precisely the same amount of evidence to prove that the foreign servants were all then to be set free as we have that the Hebrew servants were, whose ears had been pierced with awls. The proclamation of liberty as often as the jubilee returned was universal. “Ye shall hallow the fiftieth year and proclaim liberty throughout the land to all the inhabitants thereof; it shall be a jubilee unto you and ye shall return every man unto his possession, and ye shall return every man unto his family.” Lev. 25:10. The only point here to be ascertained, in order to determine whether the foreign servants as well as those of the Hebrew nation were all to be set free on this joyful occasion, is this, Were they comprehended in the phrase “all the inhabitants of the land?” Let Is look at this point.

Continued from: Reverend Silas McKeen to Thomas C. Stuart, August 20, 1839

SOURCE: Cyrus P. Grosvenor, Slavery vs. The Bible: A Correspondence Between the General Conference of Maine, and the Presbytery of Tombecbee, Mississippi, p. 57-9

Nathaniel Peabody Rogers: The New Hampshire Courier, November 10, 1838

The New Hampshire Courier has a correspondent, “Homo,” out in defence of colonization and against anti-slavery. "Homo" is a man every inch of him, for coming out in black and white. Welcome, good Homo. And thanks to brother Courier (if niggers may be allowed the expression) for giving “Homo” place in his columns. It will take a Homo to maintain the ground — not against us, but against his own readers. But courage, good Homo! — on with your numbers. We have glanced over No. 1, and seen the face of No. 2. Courage! we say. You have no great of a task — not much of a stint—nothing more to encounter than humanity and divinity — and heaven and earth. Cheer, man, the odds are with you.

Welcome, Homo, to the tented field. Abolitionists are tired of fighting intangible enemies. They glory to see one visible and tangible take the plain, and stretch his lines. They rejoice at the unfurling of flags and the glitter of the drawn blade. We will diligently and respectfully peruse “Homo,” and if, by and by, we shall copy any thing unhomogeneous in his appeals to his countrymen, we will give it such essay as our people may. We rejoice that the great rights of humanity are at length being esteemed of sufficient dignity to be argued down.

SOURCE: Collection from the Miscellaneous Writings of Nathaniel Peabody Rogers, Second Edition, p. 47 which states it was published in the Herald of Freedom of November 10, 1838.