Showing posts with label Parades And Reviews. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Parades And Reviews. Show all posts

Thursday, October 22, 2020

Dr. Seth Rogers to his Daughter, January 20, 1863

January 20, 1863.

Gen. Hunter is in earnest about arming the blacks, so we may confidently expect the well-done to increase. The little opposition to our movement will fall to the ground so soon as we can prove our worthiness by marked success. Remember, it requires not only time but deeds, to undo the hateful lesson this Republic (!) has been so long teaching. The public heart has virus in it, and nothing but the flow of arterial blood can purify it. The innocent must suffer for the guilty.

I am beginning to find a little leisure for noting verbatim some of the individual histories of these soldiers and shall endeavor to forward them to you. The Colonel and young captain have transcribed many of their songs and hymns, but, without the music of their peculiar voices, I confess the words do not much interest me. Now and then a fine, poetical expression, but as a rule, somewhat dry, like the human skull Serg't Rivers brought me one day. Their autobiographies, on the contrary, if one has the time and patience to draw them out, are often so unique that I feel deeply interested in them.

At dress parade, tonight, the Colonel had some of my sanitary measures embodied in a general order and read by the Adjutant. One of the most important details was that each tent is hereafter to have a fire in it at evening. We have tried it long enough in James's company, to be satisfied of its utility. The men do not greatly mind the smoke and I have convinced the Colonel that it is one of the best purifiers and antiseptics we could have.

SOURCE: Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Volume 43, October, 1909—June, 1910: February 1910. p. 346

Sunday, October 11, 2020

Diary of John Beauchamp Jones: Sunday, February 7, 1864

 The tocsin is sounding at 9 A.M. It appears that Gen. Butler is marching up the Peninsula (I have not heard the estimated number of his army) toward Richmond. But, being in the Secretary's room for a moment, I heard him say to Gen. Elzey that the “local defense men” must be relied on to defend Richmond. These men are mainly clerks and employees of the departments, who have just been insulted by the government, being informed that no increased compensation will be allowed them because they are able to bear arms. In other words, they must famish for subsistence, and their families with them, because they happen to be of fighting age, and have been patriotic enough to volunteer for the defense of the government, and have drilled, and paraded, and marched, until they are pronounced good soldiers. Under these circumstances, the Secretary of War says they must be relied upon to defend the government. In my opinion, many of them are not reliable. Why were they appointed contrary to law? Who is to blame but the Secretaries themselves? Ah! but the Secretaries had pets and relatives of fighting age they must provide for; and these, although not dependent on their salaries, will get the increased compensation, and will also be exempted from aiding in the defense of the city—at least such has been the practice heretofore. These things being known to the proscribed local troops (clerks, etc.), I repeat my doubts of their reliability at any critical moment.

We have good news from the Rappahannock. It is said Gen. Rosser yesterday captured several hundred prisoners, 1200 beeves, 350 mules, wagons of stores, etc. etc.

Nevertheless, there is some uneasiness felt in the city, there being nearly 12,000 prisoners here, and all the veteran troops of Gen. Elzey's division are being sent to North Carolina.

SOURCE: John Beauchamp Jones, A Rebel War Clerk's Diary at the Confederate States Capital, Volume 2p. 144-5

Friday, August 21, 2020

Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes to Lucy Webb Hayes, July 5, 1864

Camp Crook, Charleston, July 5, 1864.

Dearest: — Your last from Elmwood, June 16, reached me last night. Very glad to get so good and cheerful talk.

It is not yet quite certain whether I shall be able to come and see you for a day or two or not. I think it is hardly best for you to attempt coming here now, but if I can't come to you, we will see about it.

Sunday morning the veterans of the Twelfth under Major Carey were united to the Twenty-third and that evening your flag was formally presented to the regiment at dress parade. The hearty cheers given for Mrs. H— (that's you) showed that you were held in grateful remembrance. I do not know whether you will get any letters from Colonel Comly or not. You certainly will if he does not think it will be a bore to you.

You have no doubt seen the proceedings of the non-veterans on giving the old flag to the governor at Columbus. I send a slip containing them to be kept with our archives. Secretary [of State, William Henry] Smith's allusion to me was awkward and nonsensical; but as it was well meant I, of course, must submit to be made ridiculous with good grace.

The fracture of Abbott's arm turned out like mine, a simple fracture without splintering and he saves his arm in good, condition. He is doing well.

Our prisoners wounded at Cloyd's Mountain were well treated by the citizens of Dublin and Newbern, etc., and by the Rebel soldiers of that region. Morgan and his men, however, behaved badly towards them — very badly — but as they were with them only a few hours, they were soon in better hands again. At Lynchburg the people behaved well also.

Don't let Uncle Scott be pestered with the little sorrel. He may give him away if he can't dispose of him otherwise.

We are gradually getting over our sore feet and weak stomachs and shall be in good condition shortly. Captain Hood is here again in command of his company. Major Mcllrath, Captain Warren, Lieutenants Deshong and Nessle and perhaps one or two others leave us here. The Twenty-third is now a large and splendid regiment again, better than ever, I suppose. — Love.

Affectionately, ever,
R.
Mrs. Hayes.

SOURCE: Charles Richard Williams, editor, Diary and Letters of Rutherford Birchard Hayes, Volume 2, p. 481-2

Thursday, August 20, 2020

Diary of Private Daniel L. Ambrose: Saturday, March 22, 1862

The fires are burning brightly in our camp this morning. All seem to have more genial looking faces than when on the steamboat. This evening we have dress parade, and as usual a large number of officers and soldiers from the surrounding camps assemble on our parade ground. What is the attraction? Why so many congregated here? inquires a general officer riding by. Those of the army of the Tennessee assembled tell him it is because the Seventh can drill.

SOURCES: Daniel Leib Ambrose, History of the Seventh Regiment Illinois Volunteer Infantry, p. 47

Sunday, May 31, 2020

Classified Advertisement: Review and Inspection of the British Guard, published April 1, 1862

HEADQUARTERS BRITISH GUARD,                
4th Regt. European Brigade

In accordance with orders from Headquarters, you are ordered to meet at your armory on WEDNESDAY next, 2d April, at 2 P. M., military time, fully armed and equipped, for review and inspection by the Major General

Absentees will be fined according to the Militia Law.

By order of J. J. BURROWES, Captain.
A. F. CAMPBELL, O. S.
mh30-3t

SOURCE: The Times Picayune, New Orleans, Louisiana, Tuesday, April 1, 1862, p. 1

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Diary of Corporal David L. Day: December 5, 1861

COURTS MARTIAL.

Courts martial seems to be a prominent feature in camp affairs just at present, and almost every night at dress parade the charges and specifications are read against some unlucky wight. The burden of the song seems to be too drunk to perform the duties of a soldier; but as this is a camp of instruction, I presume these courts are really more for practice than anything else.

SOURCE: David L. Day, My Diary of Rambles with the 25th Mass. Volunteer Infantry, p. 14

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Diary of Colonel Jacob Ammen, April 5, 1862

Marched 9½ miles over bad roads, and reached Savannah, Tenn., before 12 m. General Grant was not at his headquarters (Savannah), and no one to give orders. General Nelson ordered me to go into camp. The-Tenth Brigade encamped on the southwest side of the town, about half to three-fourths of a mile from the brick house on the river (headquarters). About 3 p. m. General Grant and General Nelson came to my tent. General Grant declined to dismount, as he had an engagement. In answer to my remark that our troops were not fatigued and could march on to Pittsburg Landing, Tenn., if necessary, General Grant said, “You cannot march through the swamps; make the troops comfortable; I will send boats for you Monday or Tuesday, or some time early in the week. There will be no fight at Pittsburg Landing; we will have to go to Corinth, where the rebels are fortified. If they come to attack us, we can whip them, as I have more than twice as many troops as I had at Fort Donelson. Be sure and call at the brick house on the river to-morrow evening, as I have an engagement for this evening.” He and General Nelson then rode off. General Buell arrived about sundown. I called on him at his headquarters, about a quarter of a mile from my tent. The Nineteenth and Twenty-second Brigades encamped near the road before reaching the town. I was not at these camps. As the division is to remain here some days, I issue orders to the Tenth Brigade for review and inspection, to take place Sunday, April 6, 9 a. m.

SOURCE: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volume 10, Part 1 (Serial No. 10), p. 330-1

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Diary of Corporal David L. Day: November 16, 1861

Here it is the middle of November, and the weather is most delightful. No frosts, but a warm, mellow atmosphere like our Indian summer in October. It is beautiful, indeed; I am charmed with it. While our farmers in New England are putting up and feeding their cattle in barns, the cattle here are luxuriating in white clover, young, sweet and tender enough to suit the most fastidious taste of any of the cattle on a thousand hills. The farmers about here are harvesting their crops of corn and sweet potatoes, some of which are very fine. Some of the boys brought in some egg plants which grow about here. I never saw any before, but am told they are very good, when properly cooked. I am not disposed to doubt it, never having eaten any of them, but I cannot believe they would make good egg nog.

We begin to see a little something of the peculiar institution, — slavery. There are a great many negroes strolling around the camps, most of them runaways, and as Maryland is supposed to be a loyal state, we have no right to take sides and afford them protection. But we have adopted a kind of English neutrality, although not giving them much protection, we give them whatever information they desire. The masters and hunters are frequently here, looking up their hoys, as they call them, and we generally manage to put them on the wrong track and then run the boys into other camps, and they run them into the woods.

Our regiment was yesterday inspected and reviewed by Brig. Gen. John G. Foster. We put in our best work, and tried to make the best appearance we could. The general seems to be a man who understands his business. At a single glance he takes a man and his equipments all in; looks at his rifle, passes it back and goes for the next one. He complimented Col. Upton on the good drill and appearance of his regiment, and flattered his vanity a little by telling him that with a little more practice his regiment would be as near regulars as it would be possible to bring a volunteer regiment.

SOURCE: David L. Day, My Diary of Rambles with the 25th Mass. Volunteer Infantry, p. 11-2

Thursday, August 1, 2019

Diary of Corporal David L. Day: November 11, 1861

We are now fairly settled in camp life. Several other regiments from Massachusetts and other states are now with us, and drills, inspections and reviews are the order of the day. One can scarcely get time to wash his face, and take, as Gen. Scott said, a hasty plate of soup, before the drum calls to some kind of duty.

SOURCE: David L. Day, My Diary of Rambles with the 25th Mass. Volunteer Infantry, p. 11

Sunday, July 14, 2019

Flag Officer Samuel F. Dupont to Gustavus V. Fox, January 4, 1862 — 8 p.m.

4th Jany. 8 PM.
Dear Sir

A whale boat is up from Tybee where the Andrew had to put in having broken her rudder a second time. I send off for her. We are fortunate in having a most efficient man in this ship the Chief Engineer, who puts these matters quickly to rights.

The contraband mentioned within is 24 h. later from Savannah than the previous one, who had stated that Como Tattnall was considered too old and this one brings the news of his resignation. A General Harrison reviewed 15,000 men near Savannah — troops are arriving every week from Virginia — guns are still going up on Pulaski and 4 rifle cannon came from Richmond yesterday. They look to losing Savannah and this man also says they are to fire it, while they intend to hold Pulaski. Gillis thinks this man may have been sent as a spy. Except in precision of details and numbers I have great reliance in them — though we know also that a few are faithful. This we know by the signals that are occasionally made from the plantations on the approach of the Gunboats or armed launches.

Yrs truly
S. F. Dupont
Mr. Fox

SOURCE: Robert Means Thompson & Richard Wainwright, Editors, Publications of the Naval Historical Society, Volume 9: Confidential Correspondence of Gustavus Vasa Fox, Assistant Secretary of the Navy, 1861-1865, Volume 1, p. 98

Friday, May 3, 2019

Lieutenant-Colonel Francis Amasa Walker to Lucy Stoughton, April 18, 1864

I hope you are very well at the Falls and I wish I were there myself. The fact is I feel that it is just about time for me to be going home again, and the only trouble is that my immediate commanders don't see it in that light. It would be very nice indeed to be in some civilized place again after three months of the utter barbarism of camp life in Virginia.

I suppose we shall begin our campaign in a week or two, and then you will find the newspapers interesting. Something will break before we give up in this trial for Richmond.

A great Review of the 6th Corps to-day — but the great Review is yet to come, of course I mean the review of the 2nd. I wish dear Lucy you could be here to see it, over twenty thousand veterans all on one field with music and banners and cannon and two thousand horsemen. My! it is quite grand even for an old soldier to see.

SOURCE: James Phinney Munroe, A Life of Francis Amasa Walker, p. 69

Friday, March 29, 2019

Governor John A. Andrewto an Officer in One of the First Three Years' Regiments of Massachusetts

Dear ———: I followed the regiment through the streets, and tried hard at the Depot to find you and ——— at the cars last evening to shake hands and say goodbye, but, in vain. I cdnt find in which car was the Company even; and I began and walked through the cars shaking hands along, but the train started and I had to jump off, in motion, before I had finished. . . . Allow me to beg of you all — officers of the field — to have a single eye to the common good, happiness, success and welfare of the whole.

Let no standing on etiquette or dignity, or nice points ever postpone the interests even of the humblest private. Let each one think that the regiment depends on him, as much as if he was the only officer in it. And I pray you regard every little thing that makes for the comfort and convenience of the command, or that promotes its order or safety. A lynch pin out of a cart wheel and not supplied is fatal to the whole load, loses the cargo, and makes the cart and team as useless as if there were none. Every soldier shd be taught and made to care for and save all his property and implements, whether of war or convenience.

I think the regiment, if it fails at all, will fail for the want of that nice and regular discipline and care, which constitutes, in a trader the difference between a bankrupt and a thrifty business man and which in a household marks the odds between the good housekeeper and a disgusting slut. Col. ——— seems to me to think a regiment mainly intended for exhibiting a dress-parade, which is after all, to a regiment, just about what making a handsome bow is to a man. It is a proper accomplishment and properly comes in on receiving or parting with your host or your guest and on occasions of ceremony; but it wont stand in the stead of yr dinner when hungry, nor packing your trunk and getting yr ticket for a journey. . . .

I think Col. ———, under the excitement of battle or great duties is likely to [do] his best. I am more afraid of his failure by the weakness of not comprehending the value of details, and not understanding that all the victories of Life have to be won by preparation long before the battle itself begins. A man must see a thing in his mind, before he can do it with his hand; and unless he has seen every step of the process he has not seen it at all.

Professor Cleaveland1 lectured on chemistry at Bowdoin College for fifty years; and yet, year after year the grand and charming old man whose memory brings tears to my eyes while I write his name, — patiently worked out every experiment in his laboratory before exhibiting it to his class, and would not believe that he could perform it successfully this year, until he had tried it by testing every process and manipulating it anew — though he had done the same thing a hundred times before — today was always given wholly to its own work. And in fifty years the tradition is that he never failed before his class. What an example and what a happiness there is in such a faithful, devoted, dutiful life. Shallow men may think glory is won by showy action, like a vapid actor tearing passion into tatters close to the foot-lights. But you, I know, are not misled by any such folly; though to you as to me it is always possible not to remember that such notions are always hanging at the door of the wisest and may catch even them.

If you ever read through this long and tiresome sermon, you will see, I hope, in it the evidence of the personal interest and watchful, heart-felt affection, which ought to be entertained by a friend, whose acquaintance has been an intimacy of years. — With every good wish and fervent blessings, believe me, faithfully and always

Yours
John A. Andrew.
____________________

1 Parker Cleaveland, professor at Bowdoin from 1805 to 1858.

SOURCE: Henry Greenleaf Pearson, The Life of John A. Andrew: Governor of Massachusetts, 1861-1865, Volume 1, p. 229-31

Saturday, February 23, 2019

Diary of Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes: October 31, 1863


On the 28th General Kelley reviewed the Third Brigade, [and] General Duffie's cavalry. A beautiful day; a fine spectacle. I had only nine companies of the Twenty-third here — a small affair. General Kelley is a gentlemanly man of fifty to sixty; not an educated man — nothing particularly noticeable about him. [The] 29th, the three generals with their young ladies, Miss Jones, Miss Scammon, and Miss Smith and staffs went to Fayette. I [am] left in command here at Charleston. [The] 29th, got into new quarters — wall-tents on boards.

SOURCE: Charles Richard Williams, editor, Diary and Letters of Rutherford Birchard Hayes, Volume 2, p. 443

Wednesday, February 13, 2019

Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes to Lucy Webb Hayes, October 30, 1863

Charleston, October 30, 1863.

Dearest: — General Kelley was here and reviewed the troops on Wednesday. General Duffie's review was a beautiful and interesting sight. Generals Kelley, Scammon, and Duffie with their staffs have gone to Fayette — Miss Scammon, Miss Jones and Miss Smith with them. I am now in command of their troops here pro tem., and Avery and I run the machine on the town side.

We have got the regiment and brigade tents on stockade for winter weather. They look well and will be comfortable. Mrs. Comly is in the house, and Mrs. Graves will vacate the rest in a day or two. It now looks favorably for our family arrangements to be carried out as we planned them. Can tell certainly after General Kelley leaves.

Uncle is so urgent for Birtie's staying longer with him that I wish to consent unless you are very anxious to the contrary. Birch says he would like to see us all but prefers to stay longer at Fremont. — Love to all.

Affectionately,
R. B. Hayes.
Mrs. Hayes.

SOURCE: Charles Richard Williams, editor, Diary and Letters of Rutherford Birchard Hayes, Volume 2, p. 443

Tuesday, December 4, 2018

Diary of Captain Luman Harris Tenney: February 12, 1865

Snowing in morning. Blowing all day. Batt. inspection in A. M. Undress parade in P. M. Read sermon in Independent and considerable miscellaneous matter. Wrote home.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 143

Thursday, November 22, 2018

Diary of Captain Luman Harris Tenney: Wednesday, February 1, 1865

Grand Cavalry review. Raw day. Grand sight. Whole corps. Lady with Gen. Sheridan. Passed through Winchester.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 143

Thursday, September 13, 2018

Diary of John Beauchamp Jones: October 10, 1863

The enemy is undoubtedly falling back on the Rappahannock, and our army is pursuing. We have about 40,000 in Lee's army, and 4t is reported that Meade has 50,000, of whom many are conscripts, altogether unreliable. . We may look for stirring news soon.

About 2500 of the “local” troops were reviewed to-day. The companies were not more than half filled; so, in an emergency, we could raise 5000 fighting men, at a moment's warning, for the defense of the capital. In the absence of Custis Lee, Col. Brown, the English aid of the President, commanded the brigade, much to the disgust of many of the men, and the whole were reviewed by Gen. Elzey, still more to the chagrin of the ultra Southern men.

The Secretary seems unable to avert the storm brewing against the extortioners; but permits impressments of provisions coming to the city.

It is said the President and cabinet have a large special fund in Europe. If they should fall into the hands of Lincoln, they might suffer death; so in the event of subjugation, it is surmised they have provided for their subsistence, in foreign lands. But there is no necessity for such provision, provided they perform their duty here. I cut the following from the papers:

The Vicomte de St. Romain has been sent by the French Government to ours to negotiate for the exportation of the tobacco bought for France by French agents.

The Confederate States Government has at last consented to allow the tobacco to leave the country, provided the French Government will send its own vessels for it.

The latter will send French ships, accompanied by armed convoys.

To this the United States Government objects in toto.

Vicomte de St. Romain is now making his way to New York to send the result of his mission, through the French Consul, to the Emperor.

The French frigates in New York are there on this errand.

SOURCE: John Beauchamp Jones, A Rebel War Clerk's Diary at the Confederate States Capital, Volume 2p. 67

Monday, July 30, 2018

Diary of 2nd Lieutenant Luman Harris Tenney: Sunday, November 6, 1864

Inspection of division by Major Otis. Undress parade. Col. Purington took leave of the boys. Given three cheers. Ordered out on two days' scout. Went to forks of road, Cedar Creek and Strasburg over Little North and camped. Acted Adjt. Very laughable scene. A drunken citizen came in, bewildered and lost, almost frozen. He could find a demijohn of brandy if we could only tell him where he laid down.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 134

Friday, June 1, 2018

Captain Charles Wright Wills: April 30, 1864

Scottsboro, Ala., April 30th, '64.

You know we have been under marching orders for several days. At dress parade this evening orders were read notifying us that the division would move out on the road to Chattanooga at 6 a. m., May 1st.

This is the first intimation of the direction we would take.

It surprises me very much, and I think many others. I was certain we would either cross the Tennessee river at Larkins Ferry or near Decatur and take Dalton in flank or rear, but Sherman didn't see it. I would rather do anything else save one, than march over the road to Chattanooga. That one is to lie still in camp.

When the boys broke ranks after the parade, cries of “mule soup” filled the camp for an hour. That is the name that has been unanimously voted to the conglomeration of dead mules and mud that fills the ditches on the roadside between Stevenson and Chattanooga.

The whole division has been alive all evening; burning cabins has been the fashion. Captains Post, Smith and myself got into a little discussion which ended in our grabbing axes and demolishing each other's cabins.

SOURCE: Charles Wright Wills, Army Life of an Illinois Soldier, p. 230-1

Monday, May 21, 2018

Captain Charles Wright Wills: April 24, 1864

Scottsboro, Ala., April 24, 1864.

Spring is here at last, and summer is almost in sight. The last two days have been fully as warm as I care to see weather in April. There has been a great deal of cold, wet weather here this spring, and vegetable life is unusually backward; but the last few days have effected a great change in the forests. The north side of the mountains still look bare and wintry, the soft maple being the only tree I have noticed “in leaf” on those slopes; but nearly all of the trees and bushes on the southern mountain slopes are in full leaf. In the valleys, the poplars, the beeches, and the black gums are nearly in full spring dress, being far in advance of their comrades — the oaks, chestnuts, hickories and white gum. Of the smaller trees the dogwood leads in assuming a spring costume. Two years ago this date, vegetation was further advanced at the mouth of the Ohio than 'tis here now. Do you remember, I arrived home just about two years ago this time; stayed two and one half days, and then, for Corinth? How easily my three years in the army have made way with themselves. That I have lived something over a thousand days, in a blue uniform seems incredible. Six months sounds much more reasonable. “Black Jack” reviewed our division yesterday. Only eight of the 13 regiments could be present; but 'twas the finest review I ever saw. Logan rode through our camp, and expressed himself much pleased at our way of keeping house. We have a beautiful camp, every part of it cleanly swept every morning. It is also decorated profusely with evergreens from the mountains. I suppose it is unnecessary to tell you what we killed in the deerhunt, I spoke of in my last, as in prospect; but we did have a power of fun. Colonel Young, the citizen who proposed the party to me, is probably some 55 years old; and at heart a Rebel (he is now a member of the Alabama Legislature) but has taken the oath. I noticed a suspicious “auburn” tinge on his nose, and provided myself with a canteen of pure lightning commissary whiskey. The colonel had tasted none of the ardent for a long time, and his thirst was excessive. He became intensely demoralized; and proved the most amusing character of the party. He made us a speech, and committed so many fooleries, that if he had been anything but a Rebel, I would have been ashamed of myself for my part in his fall. Captains Wyckoff and Brown received orders yesterday accepting their tenders of resignation, and have started home. Lieutenant Worley has been detached to the Signal Corps. He is worthy of it. We (the whole corps) received orders this morning to prepare for the field immediately. The order is from McPherson and says: “Not one tent will be taken into the field, only two wagons will be allowed the regiment, one for the officers and one for the cooking utensils of the men.” That is coming down pretty low. Three years ago we had 13 wagons to each regiment. Two years ago eight, one year ago 'twas reduced to six, and now to two. What will it be next? Captain Sid. writes that two divisions of our corps will be left on this line of railroad to guard it this summer. I think ours and Morgan L. Smith's will probably be the two; but 'tis hard to tell. I would for my part much rather march; if we do march, I have no doubt our course will be what I have before told you, Larkin's Landing, Lebanon and Rome, Ga. They have made a change in our artillery. Two batteries now accompany each division, and the rest goes into an artillery reserve, a corps organization. You remember that I told you that the 1,500 horses we foraged in this country would be dead loss to the government. Our authorities fed them all winter, and this last week an order came to give them back to the citizens. Remember they have all been paid for. But they are of no account to the army, and 'tis the best thing that can now be done with them.

SOURCE: Charles Wright Wills, Army Life of an Illinois Soldier, p. 225-7