Showing posts with label 10th MO CAV. Show all posts
Showing posts with label 10th MO CAV. Show all posts

Saturday, August 8, 2020

10th Missouri Cavalry

Organized at Jefferson Barracks, Mo., October, 1862, from 28th Missouri Infantry. Bowen's Battalion assigned as Companies "A," "B," "C" and "D," and six Companies organized for 9th Missouri Cavalry assigned December 17, 1862, as Companies "E," "F," "G" and "H." Attached to District of St. Louis, Mo., to January, 1863. District of Memphis, Tenn., 16th Army Corps, Dept. of Tennessee, to March, 1863. Cavalry Brigade, District of Corinth, 16th Army Corps, to June, 1863. 3rd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, 16th Army Corps, to August, 1863. Cavalry Brigade, 15th Army Corps, to December, 1863. Winslow's Cavalry Brigade, 17th Army Corps, and District of Vicksburg to April, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, 16th Army Corps, to June, 1864. 2nd Brigade, Cavalry Division, Sturgis' Expedition, June, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, District of West Tennessee, to November, 1864. 1st Brigade, 4th Division, Cavalry Corps, Military Division Mississippi, to December, 1864. 2nd Brigade, Cavalry Division, District of West Tennessee, to February, 1865. 1st Brigade, 4th Division, Cavalry Corps, Military Division Mississippi, to May, 1865. 2nd Brigade, 4th Division, Cavalry Corps, Military Division Mississippi, to June, 1865.

SERVICE.—Moved to Memphis, Tenn., December, 1862. Duty in the District of Memphis, Tenn., till February, 1863. Moved to Corinth, Miss., February 7-15. Actions at Glendale and Tuscumbia, Ala., February 22. Duty in that district till June. Courtney's Plantation April 11. Burnsville, Ala., and Glendale, Miss., April 14. Dodge's Expedition into Northern Alabama April 15-May 8. Barton Station April 16-17. Dickson Station, Great Bear Creek, Cherokee Station, and Lundy's Lane April 17. Dickson's Station April 19. Rock Cut near Tuscumbia April 22. Dickson's Station and Tuscumbia April 23. Leighton April 23. Lundy's Lane April 25. Town Creek April 27. Expedition from Burnesville to Tupelo, Miss., May 2-8. Guntown May 4. Tupelo May 5. Near Vicksburg, Miss., May 18 (Co. "C"). Expedition from Corinth to Florence, Ala., May 26-31. Florence, Ala., May 28. Hamburg Landing, Tenn., May 29-30. Iuka, Miss., July 7. Jackson, Miss., July 29. Jacinto August 13. Expedition from Corinth to Henderson, Tenn., September 11-16. Clark's Creek Church September 13 (Detachment). Yazoo City, Miss., september 27. Expedition from Big Black River to Yazoo City September 27-October 1 (Detachment). Brownsville September 28. Canton September 28. Moore's Ford near Benton September 29. Messenger's Ford October 5. Expedition to Canton October 14-22. Brownsville October 15. Canton Road near Brownsville October 15-16. Treadwell's Plantation near Clinton and Vernon Cross Roads October 16. Bogue Chitto Creek October 17. Robinson's Mill near Livingston October 17. Livingston Road near Clinton October 18. Treadwell's Plantation October 20. Brownsville October 22. Near Yazoo City October 31. Operations about Natchez, Miss., December 1-10. Natchez December 10 (Detachment). Meridian Campaign February 3-March 2, 1864. Near Bolton's Depot and Champion's Hill February 4. Jackson February 5. Morton and Brandon February 7. Morton February 8. Meridian February 9-13. Hillsboro February 10. Meridian February 13-14. Laudersdale Springs February 16. Union February 21-22. Canton February 24. Near Canton February 26. Sharon February 27. Canton February 29. Livingston March 27. Near Mechanicsburg April 20. Ordered to Memphis, Tenn., April 29. Bolivar, Tenn., May 2. Sturgis' Expedition to Guntown, Miss., June 1-13. Rienzi, Miss., June 6. Danville, Miss., June 6. Brice's or Tishamingo Creek near Guntown June 10. Guntown June 24. Smith's Expedition to Tupelo, Miss., July 5-21. Tupelo July 14-15. Old Town Creek July 15. Smith's Expedition to Oxford, Miss., August 1-30. Tallahatchie River August 7-9. Hurricane Creek and Oxford August 9. Tallahatchie River August 10. Oxford August 12. Hurricane Creek August 13-14 and 19. Holly Springs August 27-28. Moved to Little Rock September 2-9. Campaign against Price in Arkansas and Missouri September 17-November 30. Actions at Little Blue October 21. Big Blue and State Line October 22. Westport October 23. Engagement at the Marmiton or battle of Chariot October 25. Osage Mine Creek, Marias des Cygnes, October 25. Rolla November 1. Expedition from Memphis to Moscow November 9-13. A detachment on Grierson's Raid on Mobile & Ohio Railroad December 21, 1864, to January 5, 1865. Verona December 25. Egypt Station December 28, 1864. Regiment at Louisville, Ky., till February, 1865. Moved to Gravelly Springs, Ala., February 5-15, 1865. Wilson's Raid from Chickasaw, Ala., to Macon, Ga., March 22-April 24. Near Montevallo, Ala., March 31. Ebenezer Church near Maplesville April 1. Selma April 2. Columbia, Ga., April 16. Capture of Macon, Ga., April 20. Duty at Macon and in Georgia till June. Mustered out June 20, 1865. (Co, "C" in demonstration on Haines' Blur April 29-May 2, 1863. Siege of Vicksburg May 18-July 4. Advance on Jackson, Miss., July 5-10. Siege of Jackson July 10-17. Jackson July 29. Expedition to Yazoo City September 27-October 1.)

Regiment lost during service 2 Officers and 52 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 3 Officers and 295 Enlisted men by disease. Total 352.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1309-10

Tuesday, January 21, 2014

Byrne’s Mississippi Battery: Ruggles’ Battery, Shiloh National Military Park


C. S.

BYRNE’S MISSISSIPPI BATTERY
TRABUE’S (1ST) BRIG., BRECKINRIDGE’S CORPS,
ARMY OF THE MISSISSIPPI
_____ _ ___ _ _____
 


This battery was engaged here Sunday afternoon from 3 p. m. to 5 p. m.


Friday, January 20, 2012

The Fourth Iowa Cavalry

This regiment was raised chiefly in the counties of Henry, Fremont, Delaware, Buchanan, Poweshiek, Wapello, Mahaska, Lee, Chickasaw, Bremer, Mitchell, Madison and Jefferson. They were mustered into the service in November, 1861, and numbered 1,036. The field officers were: Colonel, Asbury B. Porter; lieutenant-colonel, Thomas Drummond; majors, Simeon D. Swan, Joseph E. Jewett and George A. Stone. In February, 1862, the regiment was ordered to St. Louis and was sent from there to southwestern Missouri. In April it joined General Curtis' army and afterwards went to Helena, where it remained until April, 1863. In October Major Rector, with fifty men of the regiment, was defeated and captured with fourteen of his men. In May the regiment joined Grant's army in the Vicksburg campaign and did good service in the capture of the city. Colonel Porter resigned and Major Winslow was commissioned in his place. The Fourth was engaged in several raids in the enemy's country and had some sharp fights with slight loss. It was in the Meridian campaign and had frequent skirmishes with the rebels. In March, 1864, the veterans of the regiment who had re-enlisted went home on furlough. The regiment received enough recruits to bring its number up to 1,354 in May, 1864.

In June General Sturgis led an army of 12,000 men against the rebel army under Forrest. Colonel Winslow commanded a brigade of cavalry composed of the Third and Fourth Iowa and the Tenth Missouri. Through the utter incompetency of General Sturgis, his army was beaten at Guntown, his wagon train and artillery captured and his disorganized infantry driven in a vast mob of fleeing men back to Memphis. Colonel Winslow commanded the rear guard in the disastrous flight and with his cavalry made a gallant resistance and saved the army from total destruction. Sturgis' loss of men was about 4,000, most of whom were captured. The Fourth also participated in the battle of Tupelo, where Gen. A. J. Smith, with 12,000 men, defeated General Forrest with 14,000. In September Winslow's brigade of cavalry joined in General Smith's pursuit of General Price's army in Missouri and fought bravely in several battles, in one of which Colonel Winslow was severely wounded. In this campaign the Fourth Iowa had marched more than 2,000 miles and worn out two sets of horses.

Colonel Winslow was promoted to brigadier-general and Lieutenant Colonel Peters was in command of the Fourth cavalry. The regiment was with General Wilson in his campaign through Alabama in March and April, 1865, in which the Fourth fought in several battles and captured more than 900 prisoners. In August, 1865, this regiment, after its brilliant career, was mustered out and discharged at Davenport.

SOURCE: Benjamin F. Gue, Biographies And Portraits Of The Progressive Men Of Iowa, Volume 1, p. 121-2

Saturday, January 23, 2010

Colonel Edward Francis Winslow

SECOND COLONEL, FOURTH CAVALRY.

Edward F. Winslow was born in Kennebeck county, Maine, on the 28th day of September, 1837. He was raised and educated in Augusta, his native town, where he continued to live till the spring of 1856. In 1856, he came to Iowa, and settled in Mt. Pleasant, where he entered the mercantile business. He was engaged in this business at the time of entering the service, in the fall of 1861.

Colonel Winslow enlisted in the war as captain of Company F, 4th Iowa Cavalry. On the 3d of January, 1863, he was promoted to a majority in his regiment, which rank he held till the 4th of the following July, when he was mustered colonel. Since promoted to his present rank, he has been in command of his regiment but little. He commanded it during the month of July, 1863, and also while it was at home on veteran furlough. At all other times, if we except a few weeks in the fall of 1863, when he was chief of cavalry to the 15th Army Corps, he has been in command of a brigade of cavalry. With the succession of Colonel Winslow to the command of his regiment, a new and more fortunate chapter opened in its history. Prior to that time, the discipline of the regiment was bad, and its efficiency questionable. Indeed, I am told that at one time mutiny was threatened; but, under the new commander, order and confidence were soon restored.

A brief summary of the services of the 4th Iowa Cavalry, subsequently to the time it left Helena in the spring of 1863 to date, may be given as follows: It led the advance of General Sherman's Corps in the march from Milliken's Bend, Louisiana, to Jackson, and thence to the rear of Vicksburg; operated during the siege of the city on the right-rear of the besieging army, and in front of the line held by General Sherman on the Big Bear Creek and the Big Black River; returned with Sherman to Jackson after the fall of Vicksburg, marching thence under General Bussey to Canton; accompanied the expedition across the country to Memphis, which passed through Yazoo City, Lexington, Grenada and Panola, in August; took part in the movement that was made in September, 1863, to divert the attention of the enemy while Sherman was en route with his corps from Memphis to Chattanooga; accompanied the reconnoissance made, in October following, by Major-General McPherson in the direction of Canton; led the van of Sherman's army in the rapid march from Vicksburg to Meridian, Mississippi; came North on veteran furlough in the early spring of 1864; returned to the front in April, and reported at Memphis, from which point it marched on the expeditions of General Sturgis against Forest, and on those of General A. J. Smith against the same rebel leader; marched from Memphis in pursuit of General Price in Missouri, in September, 1864; accompanied General Grierson in his raid from Memphis down the Mobile and Ohio Railroad to Okalona, and thence to Vicksburg; and, finally, reporting to General Wilson, accompanied that officer in his brilliant and successful march through Alabama and Georgia, to Macon.

Two instances are given, where officers of the 4th Iowa, in command of detachments of their regiment, distinguished themselves in rear of Vicksburg. The following occurred just after the investment of the city: "Being ordered to Haines' Bluff on a reconnoissance, the regiment was halted at Mill Dale, and Captain Peters [now lieutenant-colonel] with twenty men of Company B, went to the point indicated in the order, capturing seven men, nine large siege-guns, and a quantity of ammunition, remaining in the works until the gun-boat De Kalb, which had been signaled by Captain Peters, came up and received the prisoners, cannon, &c. Captain Peters and the regiment are justly entitled to the credit of capturing this strong-hold."

The other instance is that where Major Parkell, with a detachment of one hundred and twenty-five men from Companies A, K, F, and I, was suddenly surrounded while on a scout in the vicinity of Big Black River. The enemy, whose strength was estimated at not less than six hundred, demanded instant surrender; but the major, instead, resolved to fight his way out, and succeeded. The fight was short, but most bitter, as I have been informed by Captain Zollars of the regiment; and, indeed, the list of casualties evidences as much. One officer and ten enlisted men were killed, and the wounded and captured numbered thirty-three. Lieutenant Joshua Gardner was one of the killed, and Lieutenant W. J. McConnellee was captured.

The operations of General Sherman in his expeditionary march against Johnson, after the fall of Vicksburg, have been fully detailed elsewhere, and can not be repeated with interest. After returning from that expedition, the 4th Iowa Cavalry rested near the Big Black till the 10th of August, and then left on a raid through the country to Memphis. As already stated, the line of march lay through Yazoo City, Lexington and Grenada. This expedition was commanded by Colonel Winslow, and resulted in the destruction of much of the Mississippi Central Railroad, and the burning of a large amount of railroad stock.

The 4th Cavalry re-enlisted as a veteran regiment in the winter of 1863-4, and, immediately after its return from the Meridian march, came North on veteran furlough. On the expiration of its furlough, Colonel Winslow left in command of it for the front, and was proceeding to Vicksburg, when he received orders from General Sherman assigning him to duty under General Sturgis, at Memphis. The regiment reached Memphis on the 23d of April, and from that time till the last of July following was almost constantly in the saddle and on the scout. Indeed, from that time till its arrival at Macon, Georgia, nearly one year later, the regiment enjoyed little rest. At Memphis, in the spring of 1864, the regiment was brigaded with the 3d Iowa and 10th Missouri Cavalry, and all its subsequent history has been made with those regiments. The brigade, from the time of its organization, has been under the command of Colonel Winslow.

Among the operations participated in by the 4th Iowa Cavalry, that of General Sturgis against Forest, made in the early part of June, 1864, is prominent. If the expedition terminated disastrously, it did not with discredit to this regiment; for few soldiers have ever shown greater patience, endurance and courage in the hour of calamitous defeat than did those of the 4th Iowa Cavalry, and I should add, of the entire 2d Brigade. The "regiment left Memphis on this expedition the 2d or 3d of June, marching by way of La Fayette, Salem, Bucksville and Ripley, where it arrived in the forenoon of the 7th instant. Thus far the march was made in an almost incessant shower of rain; but no enemy had been encountered. That evening, however, Company C of the 3d Iowa Cavalry, while out in search of forage, was attacked by rebel cavalry in considerable force, and a sharp skirmish, lasting nearly an hour, followed. In this skirmish two companies of the 4th Iowa were engaged, and lost four men wounded. On the 8th and 9th, the advance was continued in the direction of Guntown, or Baldwin, without opposition, though evidences of the nearness of the enemy were seen all along the route. The 1st Brigade of Cavalry led the advance on the morning of the 10th instant, and was the first to engage the enemy in the disastrous battle of Guntown, or rather of Brice's Cross Roads; for Guntown was nearly six miles distant from the battle-field.

Guntown, Mississippi, is situated in a region of country which is made up of barren hills and difficult morasses. In this same region of country the Hatchie, Tallahatchie and Tombigbee Rivers take their rise. Just north of Brice's Cross Roads, where the main battle was fought, was one of these swamps; and through this, General Sturgis must march to meet the enemy. The roads, which are narrow and difficult of passage in their best stages, were, at the time in question, in a wretched condition, rendered so from the incessant rains. Indeed General Sturgis, to a large extent, attributed his defeat to the condition of the weather and roads, and in that he was doubtless correct; but he offers no excuse for bolting down into that difficult swamp with his whole train, while the rattle of musketry was telling him of the presence of the enemy in force, not more than two miles in advance.

On the evening of the 9th instant, Sturgis encamped at Stubb's plantation, fifteen miles from Ripley, and some seven miles from where the enemy were first encountered. The march was resumed on the following morning, the cavalry leaving their camp at five o'clock, and the infantry following closely on their heels. The manner in which the engagement opened, and its progress till the arrival of the infantry, General Sturgis gives as follows in his official report:

"On this morning I had preceded the head of the infantry column, and arrived at a point some five miles from camp, when I found an unusually bad place in the road, and one that would require considerable time and labor to render it practicable. While halting here to await the head of the column, I received a message from General Grierson that he had encountered a portion of the enemy's cavalry. In a few minutes more, I received another message, saying the enemy numbered six hundred, and were on the Baldwin road; that he was himself at Brice's Cross Roads, and that his position was a good one and he would hold it. He was then directed to leave six or seven hundred men at the cross-roads to precede the infantry on its arrival, in the march on Guntown, and, with the remainder of his force, to drive the enemy toward Baldwin, and then rejoin the main body by way of the line of railroad, as I did not intend being drawn from my main purpose.

"Colonel McMillen now came up, and I rode forward toward the cross-roads. Before proceeding far, however, I sent a staff officer back, directing McMillen to move up his advance brigade as rapidly as possible, without distressing his troops. When I reached the cross-roads I found nearly all the cavalry engaged, and the battle growing warm; but no artillery had yet opened on either side. We had four pieces of artillery at the cross-roads; but they had not been placed in position, owing to the dense woods on all sides and the apparent impossibility of using them to advantage. Finding that our troops were being hotly pressed, I ordered one section to open on the enemy's reserves. The enemy's artillery soon replied, and with great accuracy, every shell bursting over and in the immediate vicinity of our guns. Frequent calls were now made for reinforcements; but until the infantry should arrive I had, of course, none to give. Colonel Winslow, 4th Iowa Cavalry, commanding a brigade, and occupying a position on the Guntown road a little in advance of the cross-roads, was especially clamorous to be relieved, and permitted to carry his brigade to the rear. * * * * * * * *

"About half-past one P. M., the infantry began to arrive. Colonel Hoge's Brigade was the first to reach the field, and was placed in position by Colonel McMillen, when the enemy was driven a little. General Grierson now requested authority to withdraw the entire cavalry, as it was exhausted and well nigh out of ammunition. This I authorized as soon as sufficient infantry was in position to permit it, and he was directed to organize his command in the rear, and hold it in readiness to operate on the flanks."

The rest may soon be told; for alarm begun to seize on all. The enemy, seeing their successes, pressed their victory with great energy and determination, and the infantry line was hardly formed before it was broken. General Grierson was called on for cavalry to support the right flank, and it no sooner met the enemy in that quarter than it was repulsed. An effort to hold the left was equally unsuccessful. All saw that the day was lost, and acted with indecision and irresolution. Sturgis was already driven from the high ground, and beaten back on his wagon-train. This he made a spasmodic effort to save; but, seeing the enemy in heavy columns swinging by his left flank, he gave the order to retreat. And such a retreat! Every thing but his army, and much of that was lost. For the portion saved, he was indebted chiefly to the cavalry, and in no slight degree to the Iowa cavalry regiments. It is positively asserted that the 2d Brigade, of Grierson's Division, reached Collierville (and the enemy made pursuit to that point) in a less disorganized condition than any other brigade command of the army.

The list of casualties of the 4th Iowa cavalry in the battle at Brice's Cross Roads and in the retreat to Collierville is not given. The regiment's historian, Adjutant Ambrose Hodge, closes his account of this affair as follows:

"On arriving at Collierville, the men had been in the saddle fifty-four consecutive hours, fighting the greater part of the time without feed for their horses or provisions for themselves. The regiment arrived at Memphis, on the 14th instant, the men and horses being completely worn down by excessive labor performed on this march. The distance traveled was three hundred and fifty miles."

Following the disastrous expedition of General Sturgis, was that of General A. J. Smith; and the latter was as successful as the former had been unfortunate. The 4th Iowa Cavalry joined Smith on this march, and fought in the battle of Tupelo; but an account of this expedition has already been given in the sketch of Colonel Woods of the 12th Iowa Infantry. Neither in this, nor in the second expedition of General Smith against Forest, are the losses of the regiment stated. It was during the absence of the 4th Cavalry, or rather of eleven companies of it, in August, that Forest dashed into Memphis, on a hurried call on General Washburne. Company C was left behind, being detailed on provost-duty in the city, and was the only company of the regiment that, actually encountered Forest. In this affair, the company lost Lieutenant L. P. Baker, severely wounded. It is reported as having conducted itself with/much gallantry.

Next, in the history of the regiment, follows the expedition against General Price in Missouri, an account of which has been given in the sketch of Colonel Noble and his regiment. During the Missouri Campaign, Colonel Winslow was severely wounded. He was shot in the leg, while his brigade was charging the enemy, on the Big Blue River, near Westport. Though severely wounded, it is stated he refused to leave his command till the enemy had been driven from the field.

In the charge made on the 25th of October, near the Osage, the 4th Iowa Cavalry captured two hundred and thirty-five prisoners, and two stand of colors, and lost during the expedition four killed and twenty-six wounded. Lieutenant H. W. Curtis, of Company F, was killed in the charge on the Osage, and Major A. B. Pierce, commanding the regiment, was severely wounded in the foot. Among those mentioned for special gallantry during the campaign, were Major Pierce, Captains Drummond, Dana and Lee, all commanding battalions of the regiment, and Lieutenant and Acting Adjutant John S. Keck. Company commanders, in all cases, managed their commands in a manner highly creditable to themselves.

If we except the expedition made by General Grierson through Mississippi, late in December, 1864, there remains but one more important campaign to be recorded in the history of the 4th Iowa Cavalry — that made under General Wilson through Alabama and Georgia.

On the route from Missouri to the Military Division of the Mississippi, and during the few weeks of rest that the brigade of Colonel Winslow enjoyed before starting on the Macon march, there is little of special interest; and I therefore pass at once to the history of the memorable raid. Brevet Major-General Wilson, with a cavalry corps numbering about twelve thousand men, left Chickasaw on the Tennessee on the 21st of March, 1865, for a destination known to few of his command. The outfit was extensive and had been long in making; and it was known to the command that the expectations of the commanding general were commensurate with his preparations, and that was all. The rest, the future must disclose. The route of the column was nearly south-south-east, till its arrival at Montevallo. From that point, it was south to Selma, and thence, nearly due east, to Montgomery, Columbus and Macon. In this line of march was included four of the most important inland cities of the Confederacy — important as places of note and pride, and as manufacturing points.

Let me state, while I have it in mind, that, on the march in question, the 3d and 4th Iowa Cavalry were attached to the division of General Upton, (the 4th) and the 5th and 8th to that of General McCook. These were the only Iowa troops who accompanied the march.

The enemy first made a determined stand at Six-Mile Creek, between Montevallo and Selma. They had just previously occupied Montevallo, with the expectation of defending it; but, on the near approach of the Federal column, their hearts foiled them, and they fled in the direction of Selma. At Six-Mile Creek, the enemy were under Chalmers, Roddy and Lyon, with the inhuman wretch, Forest, as commander-in-chief. The battle was fought on the last day of March, and on that day the division of General Upton was in the lead of the column. The enemy were found in a strong position, which was defended by artillery; but after some skirmishing they were charged and routed, losing their artillery and more than two hundred prisoners. The second fight was at Ebenezer Church, about twenty miles from Selma. Here the enemy were no more successful; for after a brief engagement they were a second time routed and forced back toward Selma. This battle was fought on the 1st of April. The following day, General Wilson defeated Forest for the third time, and entered and occupied Selma.

Selma, on the north bank of the Alabama, and one of the chief railroad-centres of that State, was defended by two lines of works, each swinging entirely round the city, and resting on the right and left of the river bank. The outer line was guarded by a strong palisade. This strong-hold was captured by two divisions of the Federal troops — Generals Upton's and Long's. General Long took position on the right, and General Upton on the left. Line of battle was formed on the high ground, and, after the usual skirmishing and signaling, an assault was ordered. As In all successful charges, the work was well and quickly done. With less than three thousand men, the outer works were carried, in the face of artillery and nine thousand muskets; and only some two thousand of the latter were in the hands of the citizen militia.

In taking the outer line of works, the 3d Iowa Cavalry was In the front, and the 4th, in reserve; but, in taken [sic] the second line, the 4th held the front. Lieutenant George W. Stamm, of the 3d Iowa Cavalry, who wields a good pen and I believe a good sword, says: "Immediately after we took possession of fortifications, the 4th Iowa Cavalry were mounted, and rushed on the flying foe with an impetuosity which nothing could withstand. Weary, out of breath and heated with our double-quick, we saw them pass us like a whirlwind, scattering death and confusion among the Johnnies, while the brass band that had boldly ventured to the front was playing the enlivening strains of 'Yankee Doodle,' in singular unison with the rattle of musketry and the shouts of victory." Thus Selma was captured, the great military store-house and manufacturing depot for the Confederates, in Alabama. The enemy lost many killed and wounded, and about two thousand prisoners.

Montgomery fell without a struggle, as also did Macon, Georgia; but Columbus, Georgia, made a determined defense. General Wilson appeared before the place at noon of the 16th of April, and that evening carried it, as he had Selma, by assault. Columbus is situated on the east bank of the renowned Chattahoochie; but the works that protected it from the west, and which General Wilson was obliged to carry, were on the west bank of the stream. Both above and below the city, bridges spanned the Chattahoochie: the approaches to each were covered by artillery, mounted in strong forts. Rifle-pits and other defenses commanded the approaches in every other quarter westward. The 2d Brigade of General Upton's Division first approached the city, and when near the works that defended the lower bridge made a charge with the hope of carrying the position and gaining the bridge. They were unsuccessful, being repulsed with much loss. Colonel Winslow's First Brigade now coming up was sent back by the commanding general, and directed to gain, by a circuitous route, a position in rear of the upper bridge. The movement was successfully made, and at dusk in the evening a charge was ordered which resulted in the fall of Columbus. As at Selma, the 3d and 4th Iowa Cavalry were in the front line. Indeed, there was little fighting done during the whole campaign in which these regiments did not have part.

I have already said that the last fighting of the expedition was done at Columbus. After resting here one day, General Wilson marched on Macon; but when near the city, he was advised of the terms agreed on between Sherman and Johnson, and informed that his entrance into the place would not be opposed. The 4th Iowa Cavalry is now in camp at Macon, and the war is virtually ended.

The loss of the regiment during the campaign was not very severe. Captain E. R. Jones, Chief Bugler Tabor, and Sergeant Beezley, were among the killed, and Quarter-Master Sergeant Detrick and Sergeant Stocks among the wounded. The entire loss of the regiment in killed and wounded was, I think, twenty-five. Captain Jones was killed in the charge at Selma.

I never saw Colonel Winslow, but am told he has an intelligent and pleasing countenance, and a feminine voice. He is a man of great energy, great ambition and unlimited self-confidence. All agree that he is a splendid officer. He has both the courage and the skill to handle troops successfully in the face of the enemy. His worst fault, if it can be termed a fault is his self-conceit, which sometimes discovers itself immodestly.

SOURCE: Addison A. Stuart, Iowa Colonels and Regiments, p. 609-20

Thursday, January 21, 2010

Colonel John Wesley Noble

THIRD COLONEL, THIRD CAVALRY.

John W. Noble was born in Cleveland, Ohio, in the year 1831, and is a son of Colonel John Noble, a distinguished citizen of that State. His education is liberal and thorough, and was acquired at Yale College, New Haven. His profession is the law, which he first studied in the office of Hon. Henry Stansbury of Ohio, and afterward at the Cincinnati Law School. In 1857, he came to Iowa and settled in the city of Keokuk, where he formed a law partnership with Henry Strong, Esq. From that time until the breaking out of the war, he practiced his profession with great success, and in the opinion of most competent judges was, without regard to his age, one of the best read lawyers in his district. In the spring of 1861, the firm of "Strong & Noble" ranked only second in ability and business, to the many law firms in the city of Keokuk. In August, 1861, John W. Noble entered the service as adjutant of the 3d Iowa Cavalry. He held that rank till the 18th of November, 1862, when he was mustered to the majority of the 2d Battalion of his regiment. Early in May, 1864, he was made lieutenant-colonel, and in the following June was mustered colonel, vice Colonel H. C. Caldwell.

For several months before he was commissioned colonel, and while he held the rank of major, Colonel Noble commanded his regiment — or rather the 1st and 3d Battalions of it. These battalions were under his command in rear of Vicksburg, during Sherman's advance on Jackson, on the march to Canton, and the raid made by Colonel Winslow of the 4th Iowa Cavalry from near the Big Black River through the country to Memphis. The last named expedition was made in August, 1863, and we resume the history of the regiment from that date.

On the 26th of August, the 1st and 3d Battalions of the 3d Iowa were embarked on boats for Vicksburg, but they had proceeded no farther than Helena, when they were ordered by General Grant in person, to debark and report to General Steele, then marching on Little Rock. It will be remembered the 2d Battalion of the regiment, with the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Caldwell, had marched with the cavalry division of General Davidson from Arcadia, and that it now formed a part of General Steele's forces. On the arrival of Major Noble the regiment was therefore re-united after a separation of nearly two years. From September, 1863, until the following February, the histories of the 1st and 3d Iowa Cavalry regiments are nearly the same. They served in the same department, and took part in the same operations; but on the last named date, the 3d Iowa having re-enlisted, came North on veteran furlough. Since that time the histories of these regiments have been widely different.

While en route for the front, after the expiration of its furlough, the 3d Iowa Cavalry was stopped at Memphis, and, in the latter part of April, 1864, was brigaded with the 4th Iowa and 10th Missouri Cavalry. These troops constituted "Colonel Winslow's Brigade;" and by their gallantry in six important expeditions they have made their name distinguished.

An account of the operations against General Forest in the spring and summer of 1864, I have given elsewhere, and I need not detail them here. The 3d Iowa took part in all these operations, and sustained its reputation for gallantry. In the disastrous affair of General Sturgis near Guntown, Mississippi, the regiment lost five killed, eighteen wounded, and forty-nine captured. In speaking of the conduct of his regiment in this engagement, Colonel Noble says:

"My officers and men behaved universally so well that I can not make much distinction among them. But, for their aid in getting a new line to force the enemy at one particular emergency, I deem Captain Curkendall, of Company D, and Lieutenant McKee, of Company B, worthy of particular notice. Major Jones was constantly at his post, and did all a good and brave officer could. If occasion offers, I hope to bring the merits of others of the brave men more prominently forward than I can do now."

Lieutenants Thomas J. Miller and Reuben Delay were both wounded in this engagement and captured.

The loss of the 3d Iowa Cavalry in the expedition made by General Smith against Forest to Tupelo, Mississippi, was one killed, seventeen wounded, and one captured. Major Duffield and Captains Crail, Brown, McCrary and Johnson, are mentioned for special gallantry.

The history of the operations against General Sterling Price in Missouri, in the fall of 1864, is one of great interest, and the brilliant part which the 3d Iowa Cavalry and its brigade sustained in it I give in full.

Colonel Winslow's Brigade had only returned from its second expedition under General Smith against Forest, when it was ordered in pursuit of Price: indeed, it was re-called from Oxford, Mississippi, if I mistake not, for this express purpose. The brigade left its camp near Memphis, at two o'clock on the morning of the second of September, and, crossing the Mississippi, marched to Brownsville, Arkansas, when it arrived on the 9th instant. Here the command rested till the morning of the 18th, awaiting the arrival and organization of the infantry command of Major-General Mower. On the 18th, the march was resumed northward, and, passing through Austin, and Searcy, and crossing the White River fifteen miles below Batesville, and Black River at Elgin, entered Missouri at Poplar Bluffs. Price was now well into Missouri, living liberally, and inviting his rebel adherents to join him. From Poplar Bluffs, Winslow's Brigade marched east to Cape Girardeau, and proceeded thence by boat to St. Louis, where it arrived on the 10th of October.

At this date, there was great alarm, both in Southern Iowa and Eastern Kansas; and the militia in both States were being organized and disciplined to meet the invader. Dollar-men along the border in Iowa, (I do not speak for Kansas) who, during the whole war, had hugged closely to their business and about their firesides, and who had thought of nothing but their per centage, now looked anxiously over into Missouri, and talked loudly of patriotism. I could not pass without paying the patriots this compliment.

Winslow's Brigade rested only one day in St. Louis to refit; then pushed up the Valley of the Missouri River, on the direct road to Independence. The command struck the enemy's trail at Franklin, only thirty miles west from the Mississippi; and at that time Price was at Lexington. On the 22d instant, they reached Independence, where they formed a junction with the cavalry command of General Pleasanton. That same evening the brigade was thrown to the front, and encountered the enemy's rear-guard; for Price was now only a few miles distant from Independence. Of the operations of the 3d Iowa Cavalry that night, Colonel Noble says:

"My regiment, though not having the advance, was dismounted, sent to the front, and immediately engaged the enemy on the Kansas City Road, fighting and driving Clark's rebel brigade a distance of five miles, from five o'clock until nine and one-half P. M., when my command was relieved. The command rested on the field for the night in the face of the enemy, having marched from twelve o'clock on the night of the twenty-first, without water or forage for our animals."

The next morning, the 23d, the 3d Iowa Cavalry was in the saddle by four o'clock, and pressing the enemy. The 10th Missouri and 4th Iowa Cavalry had the advance. It will be remembered that, as early as the 20th instant, General Blunt, under orders from General Curtis, had moved out from Kansas to Lexington and engaged Price's advance. Pleasanton, with his cavalry, soon after struck him in rear, and from that time till the 23d, the date of the battle on the Big Blue, the rebel general was between two fires. It will also be remembered that it was on the Big Blue that the invading army was defeated and disorganized. In this splendid victory, the brigade of Colonel Winslow contributed not a little. Early in the day, Company A, of the 3d Iowa, charged the enemy in a strong position, and captured a stand of colors and several prisoners; and later in the same day, the entire regiment, in company with its brigade, "joined in the gallant mounted charge against the enemy in column of regiments, which was continued through farms and over the prairie for five or six miles." The loss of Price here was extremely severe, and, as I have said, his army was demoralized.

The history of the pursuit, during the two subsequent days, Major B. S. Jones gives as follows:

"Having, at day-light, [the 14th] joined the Army of the Border under General Curtis, we marched early, constantly and rapidly in a southern direction after the retreating enemy, down the line dividing Missouri and Kansas, over extensive prairies, dotted with devastated farms and lonely chimneys, which marked the ravages of war. We marched without halting, until three o'clock A. M. of the 25th, when we reached Trader's Post on the Osage River: there we found the enemy, and eagerly waited for morning. The enemy, having been routed from his position on the river, was followed up at a gallop for several miles by Winslow's Brigade, in the following order: 10th Missouri, 4th Iowa, 3d Iowa, 4th Missouri, and 7th Indiana Cavalry. When he attempted to make a stand, we formed on the open prairie in two lines of battle, supported by eight pieces of artillery.

"My command was formed in line of battle with the brigade, in column of regiments, in their order of march, and constituting the left centre of our whole line. We charged the enemy, breaking his right and centre, killing, wounding and capturing many of his men. Among the captured were Generals Marmaduke and Cabell, the former by Private James Dunlavy, of Company D, and the latter by Sergeant C. M. Young, of Company L — both of the 3d Iowa Cavalry. Companies C, D and E captured three pieces of the enemy's artillery. The whole of my command did nobly on that field, as also on all others, and the highest commendations are due to every man and officer. The remainder of the day was one continual charge upon the enemy, resulting in his complete rout. We rested on the open prairie over night, near Fort Scott, Arkansas."

The charge made by Winslow's and Philip's Brigades, on the 25th instant, against the command of General Marmaduke and near Mound City, was brilliant in the extreme. It was in this charge, and after the rout of the enemy that Marmaduke and Cabell were captured. General Marmaduke was holding Price's rear at the place above designated, and had formed his division in line to check our advance. But he had chosen his position badly. It was at the foot of a gentle slope, and in front of a small creek, skirted with brush. The charge was made down the slope at full run, with the 10th Missouri in the lead, that regiment being followed by the 4th Iowa, and the 4th by the 3d. The sight was a magnificent one. When the 10th came under the withering fire of the enemy, it recoiled slightly; but the 4th dashed on through its line, wheeling partially to the right, and followed closely by the 3d. The 4th Iowa was the first to strike and break the enemy's line. In an instant, the whole rebel line was shattered and fleeing in confusion. The charge was so sudden and impetuous that Marmaduke was left without a command, and a straggler; and thus he was captured. Cabell was captured in like manner. Private Dunlavy, the captor of Marmaduke, was a new recruit, and I am told is a bit of a boy. His home is in Davis county. Sergeant Young is twenty-four years of age, and a native of Ohio.

Immediately after this brilliant charge General Pleasanton issued the following complimentary order:


"General Orders No. 6.

"Head-quarters Cavalry Division,
Fort Scott, Kansas, Oct. 26th, 1864.

"The major-general commanding this division, composed of troops from the Department of Missouri and Winslow's Brigade of cavalry, congratulates the officers and men upon the brilliant success which has crowned their untiring efforts, in this decisive campaign. The battles of Independence, Big Blue and Osage river, have resulted in the capture of Major-General Marmaduke, Brigadier-General Cabell, four colonels and nearly one thousand prisoners, (including a large number of field officers) ten pieces of artillery, seven thousand stand of arms, the destruction of a large portion of the enemy's train, and the routing of their army. The gallant action of Phillip's Brigade of Missouri Cavalry, and Winslow's Brigade, in capturing eight of the enemy's guns on the Osage, was so distinguished as to draw praise from the enemy. ***** The regiments of the 4th Brigade [Winslow's ] are authorized to place upon their colors 'Big Blue and Osage.'

"By command of Major-General Pleasanton, etc."


Resting one day at Fort Scott, Winslow's Brigade continued the pursuit, following Price through Arkansas and the Indian Territory, to a point on the Arkansas River about forty miles above Fort Smith. They failed to overtake the enemy, and soon after turned about, and marched to St. Louis, via Fayetteville and Springfield.

During the Missouri Campaign, the 3d Iowa Cavalry suffered the following loss: six men were killed, and two officers and forty-one men wounded. Lieutenant and Adjutant James H. Watts was shot near Independence, on the 22d of October, and died soon after of his wounds. First Sergeant Lewis G. Baldwin was mortally wounded in the same skirmish. In the battle on Big Blue, Captain J. D. Brown, of Company L, and twelve enlisted men of the regiment were wounded; and, in that known as the Osage, four enlisted men were killed and twenty-four wounded.

In December, Winslow's Brigade left St. Louis and returned to Memphis, where it remained till the 21st instant, and then joined General Grierson in his raid through Mississippi. The route which Grierson followed was as follows: Marching east till he struck the Mobile and Ohio Railroad at Shannon Station, he then turned south and moved down the road until reaching Okalona. From Okalona, he marched south-west, passing through Bellefontaine and Lexington, and arriving at Vicksburg on the 5th of January, 1865. Hood, it should be borne in mind, had already been frozen out at Nashville, (for he is reported to have said that the cold contributed more to his defeat than General Thomas) and was hunting head-quarters in Northern Mississippi and Alabama. The object of Grierson's raid was to destroy Hood's supplies, and his lines of communication, and this was most effectually done. Immense stores and railroad property were destroyed.

Only a portion of the 3d Iowa Cavalry accompanied General Grierson on this expedition. Colonel Noble commanded the detachment, which consisted of eleven commissioned officers and three hundred and nine enlisted men. From Vicksburg, the 3d Iowa returned by boat with its brigade to Memphis, and soon after sailed for Louisville, Kentucky, where the regiment was again united. The regiment's next and last campaign was that made under Brevet Major-General Wilson from Chickasaw on the Tennessee River, to Macon, Georgia, A history of this brilliant march will be found in the sketch of Colonel Winslow, of the 4th Iowa Cavalry.

The enemy were first met on this march at Six-Mile Creek, twenty miles from Montevallo. Here the 3d Iowa charged and broke the enemy's line, and captured one hundred prisoners. The subsequent engagements were those at Ebenezer Church, Selma and Columbus; and in all of them the regiment was conspicuous. Its loss, from the time it left Chickasaw till its arrival at Macon, was about forty, or nearly twenty per cent larger than the loss of either of the other regiments of the brigade. Captain Thomas J. Miller of Company D, who fell at Columbus, was the only commissioned officer of the regiment killed. He was a young man of steady habits, and of much promise. Entering the service as a private of Company D, from Davis county, he was first orderly to Colonel Bussey, then sergeant, and then lieutenant and captain. It will be remembered that he was severely wounded on Sturgis' disastrous expedition against Forest. I am told that he said, when his regiment returned to the front from its veteran furlough, that he should never return alive. He was killed by the concussion of a shell, which grazed his breast as it passed him, and while he was standing in front of his company, just before the charge was ordered. Captain B. F. Crail was severely wounded in the first engagement at Six-Mile Creek, and Lieutenant J. J. Veatch slightly, at Ebenezer Church. These were all the casualties among the commissioned officers. Sergeant John W. Delay of Company I, was killed at Columbus.

And thus the 3d Iowa Cavalry closes its brilliant history in the War of the Rebellion; for Lee has surrendered, and Johnson; and Davis, the head of the Confederacy, is captured.

Colonel Noble is a small, black-haired, black-eyed man, with good education, good ability, and of remarkable energy and .courage. All declare him to be a perfect gentleman, and a model soldier.

I am told that, as soon as news came of the firing on Fort Sumpter, Colonel Noble began studying military law and tactics. From that time forward, he devoted his entire energies to military matters; and, to-day, he is the best versed in military law of any officer from Iowa. He has, in addition to his many other excellent traits, a kind heart, and is watchful of the interests of his men. He has no superior among the Iowa colonels.

SOURCE: Addison A. Stuart, Iowa Colonels and Regiments, p. 597-606

Thursday, November 13, 2008

Letter From T. A. Trent

Sgt. Co. D. 39th Iowa, Corinth, April 11.

Mr. Caverly:– It being rainy this evening I will pass the time by telling you some of the doings of the Corinth braves.

On the 7th of this month word was given out by Gen. Dodge, - who, by the way is beloved by all the troops here – that we would celebrate that day, it being the anniversary of the battle of Shilo [sic].

We raised a fine pole about 100 feet high for the flag, and all the troops were ordered to parade for a review at one o’clock, P.M.

The troops were up to time, and when the old flag was thrown to the breeze, the shouts of the Boys were scarcely less loud than the roar of the artillery. The Band then [struck] up the Star Spangled Banner, and if [ever] I felt like fighting it was then.

The next thing was a prayer by the Chaplain, after which Col. (acting Brigadier General) Bane, who lost his arm at the battle of Shiloh, gave us a stirring, patriotic speech. – He encouraged the soldiers and rebuked the copperheads in scathing terms. At the conclusion the Band again played, and the boys cheered with a will. The review then commenced led off by the 10th Missouri cavalry, well armed and [equipped], and going through the exercises as well as infantry.

The infantry also came up in fine style, as did the artillery that brought up the rear. – It was near night when the exercises were through, and as I left for my tent, I felt proud that I was an American soldier, fighting for a government like ours.

Company D are doing well as could be expected under the circumstances, having [built] them nice split log huts, neatly covered with boards; the Captain’s being sided and roofed with clapboards. We have plenty of provisions. If we could have the smiles of our wives and mothers to great our comings and to cook us a clean bite, I believe we could enjoy ourselves for a while.

Health of the Company is good with a few exceptions, and the spirits of both officers and men, high, with the best of feelings between each other. I am detached from the Company and belong to a Pioneer Corps, but am with them often.

Hoping that God will help the right, and enable us to whip in every fight and to attend to the copperheads at home, when we return, I bid you a good night.

Yours,

T. A. Trent

– Published in The Union Sentinel, Osceola, Iowa, Saturday, May 2, 1863

Tuesday, March 18, 2008

Death of Col. Cornyn

Memphis, Aug. 10 – A fatal tragedy was enacted at Corinth to-day. A courtmartial was in session, when an altercation occurred between Col. Cornyn, of the 10th Missouri Cavalry, and Lieut. Col. Bowen, of the same regiment. Cornyn is reported to have struck Bowen, when the latter drew his pistol and shot Col. Cornyn in three places, killing him instantly.

- Published in The Union Sentinel, Osceola, Iowa, August 15, 1863