Tuesday, October 21, 2014

Diary of Josephine Shaw Lowell: September 25, 1861

Gen. Fremont is to be allowed by the Administration to carry out his own plans unmolested and he is going to take the field himself, which is a good move as his reputation is at stake. Mother had a lovely letter from Mrs. Fremont, telling her, among other things, to “Watch my Chief,” and speaking of “Our General.” It is really delightful to see a woman so much in love with her husband.

SOURCE: William Rhinelander Stewart, The Philanthropic Work of Josephine Shaw Lowell, p. 20

Lieutenant-Colonel Theodore Lyman to Elizabeth Russell Lyman, November 3, 1863

Headquarters Army Of Potomac
November 3, 1863

Did I mention that, since Centreville, some two weeks, I have had a tent-mate, a Swede, one of those regular Europeans, who have been forever in the army, and who know no more about campaigning than a young child. After staying five months in this country, he got, at last, a commission as 2d Lieutenant of cavalry; and came down to study our system of artillery. He appeared with a large stock of cigars and hair-brushes, but without bedding, of any sort whatsoever. I gave him, pro tem, a buffalo, rubber blanket, etc., and, with these, and a borrowed cot, he has gone on since, apparently thinking that a kind Providence will ever care for his wants. He hasn't got mustered in yet, and seems to suppose that the officers will come to Headquarters and remove all the trouble in his commission. Now he is going to Washington about it; or rather has said he was going, for the last three days. Au reste, he is a quiet, polite man, who, I think, will not do much to improve the Swedish artillery. He has obtained a nigger boy, whose name is Burgess, but whom he calls “Booyus,” remarking to me that it was a singular name, in which I fully agreed! . . .

SOURCE: George R. Agassiz, Editor, Meade’s Headquarters, 1863-1865: Letters of Colonel Theodore Lyman from the Wilderness to Appomattox, p. 41

Major-General George G. Meade to Margaretta Sergeant Mead, May 29, 1864 – 10 a.m.

South Side of Pamunkey River, Hanovertown,
Headquarters Army Of The Potomac, 10 A. M., May 29, 1864.

We have crossed the Pamunkey, and are now within eighteen miles of Richmond. Lee has fallen back from the North Anna, and is somewhere between us and Richmond. We shall move forward to-day to feel for him. We are getting on very well, and I am in hopes will continue to manoeuvre till we compel Lee to retire into the defense of Richmond, when the grand decisive fight will come off, which I trust will bring the war to a close, and that it will be victory for us.

SOURCE: George Meade, The Life and Letters of George Gordon Meade, Vol. 2, p. 199

Governor Samuel J. Kirkwood to Major-General Henry W. Halleck, February 17, 1862

Des Moines, Ia., Feb. 17, 1862.
Gen. H. W. Halleck, St. Louis, Mo.:

Sir: — I have received from Gen. Schuyler Hamilton Special Order No. 30, issued by him on the 10th inst., disgracing the 2d regiment Iowa Volunteer Infantry, by causing them to march to the point of embarkation at St. Louis with flag furled and without music.

I have felt constrained to return said order to Gen. Hamilton, for the reason that it seemed to me harsh and cruel to punish an entire regiment for an act of which but very few could have been guilty, and for which, as far as has been shown, all may have been innocent, and that I could not, under such circumstances, by receiving said order, admit the justice of the punishment.

I trust I will not be considered as intrusive in calling this matter to your attention, and earnestly requesting that if possible the stigma may be removed from the regiment. Very respectfully your obedient servant,

Samuel J. Kirkwood

SOURCE: State Historical Society of Iowa, Iowa Historical Record, Volumes 1-3, Volume 2, No. 3, July 1886, p. 324

Governor Samuel J. Kirkwood to Abraham Lincoln, August 21, 1862

I am satisfied Iowa has to-day not less than eighteen, and, I believe, twenty, new regiments ready for organization, in addition to the twenty-one now in the field.

S. J. K.

SOURCE: Henry Warren Lathrop, The Life and Times of Samuel J. Kirkwood, Iowa's War Governor, p. 219

Senator James W. Grimes to Elizabeth S. Nealley Grimes, September 9, 1863

Grinnell, September 9, 1863.

I am thus far on my tortuous way. We have very large meetings, never so large in the State before, and, so far as I can learn, the very best of feeling prevails among our friends. I cannot doubt our success in the State. The Democrats were never working so hard before, but we shall beat them.

SOURCE: William Salter, The Life of James W. Grimes, p. 238

Diary of Private Alexander G. Downing: Tuesday, December 22, 1863

Relieved from picket this morning. It was quite cold last night. I was on an outpost and our detail consisted of a sergeant, a corporal and twelve privates. We took turns standing on vedette, one hour at a time.

Source: Alexander G. Downing, Edited by Olynthus B., Clark, Downing’s Civil War Diary, p. 158

Diary of Private Charles H. Lynch: March 29, 1864

Arrived in Baltimore early this morning. Nothing happened to mar the pleasure of the journey. All were soon out of the cars, line quickly formed, ready to march from the Camden Street station to the Philadelphia R. R. station, on the east side. Our march led through Pratt Street, the scene of the attack on the 6th Massachusetts regiment in April, 1861, by the Baltimore toughs, who claimed to be in sympathy with the South.

At the Philadelphia station a train was soon made ready for us, which we quickly boarded, and were soon under way, passing the scenes of our first soldier life, Camp Emory and Fort Marshall. These were points of interest to us, and very pleasant recollections. After an uneventful trip we arrived in Philadelphia late this P. M. Ordered out of the cars, line formed for marching, stopping at a place known as the Cooper Shop, where a good dinner was served by the ladies of Philadelphia. It was a very pleasant occasion in our lives, never to be forgotten. Again journeying on towards New York. Our train being special was often side-tracked and we were forced to wait.

SOURCE: Charles H. Lynch, The Civil War Diary, 1862-1865, of Charles H. Lynch 18th Conn. Vol's, p. 48

Diary of Luman Harris Tenney: November 23, 1861

Sunday. Stayed in camp. D. R. H. and C. G. F. went up town. Read some and wrote home.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 4

1st Independent Company Ohio Sharpshooters

Organized at Dayton, Ohio, September-October, 1861. Attached to Birge's Western Sharpshooters, 14th Missouri Infantry, and later 66th Illinois Infantry as Company "G."

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the 3, p. Rebellion, Part 1495

2nd Independent Company Ohio Sharpshooters

Organized at Findlay, Ohio, September-October, 1861. Attached to Birge's Western Sharpshooters, 14th Missouri Infantry, and later 66th Illinois Infantry as Company "H."

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the 3, p. Rebellion, Part 1495

3rd Independent Company Ohio Sharpshooters

Organized at Lima, Ohio, March and April, 1862. Attached to Birge's Western Sharpshooters, 14th Missouri Infantry, and later 66th Illinois Infantry as Company "K."

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the 3, p. Rebellion, Part 1495

4th Independent Company Ohio Sharpshooters

Organized at Goshen and Camp Dennison, Ohio, and mustered in September 29, 1862. Attached to 79th Ohio Infantry as Company "K."

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the 3, p. Rebellion, Part 1495

5th Independent Company Ohio Sharpshooters

Organized at Camp Cleveland, Ohio, and mustered in February 25, 1863. At Headquarters Generals Rosecrans and Thomas, Commanding Army and Dept. of the Cumberland, March, 1863, to July, 1865. Mustered out July 19, 1865.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the 3, p. Rebellion, Part 1495

6th Independent Company Ohio Sharpshooters

Organized at Camp Cleveland, Ohio, and mustered in December 30, 1862. At Headquarters of Generals Rosecrans and Thomas, Commanding Army and Dept. of the Cumberland, March, 1863, to July, 1865. Mustered out July 19, 1865.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the 3, p. Rebellion, Part 1495

7th Independent Company Ohio Sharpshooters.

Organized at Camp Cleveland, Ohio, and mustered in January 27, 1863. At Headquarters of Generals Rosecrans and Thomas, Commanding Army and Dept. of the Cumberland, March, 1863, to May, 1864, and at Headquarters of General Sherman, Commanding Military Division Mississippi, May 20, 1864, to July 17, 1865. Mustered out July 28, 1865.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the 3, p. Rebellion, Part 1495

8th Independent Company Ohio Sharpshooters.

Organized at Camp Dennison, Ohio, March 9, 1863. At Headquarters of Generals Rosecrans and Thomas, Commanding Army and Dept. of the Cumberland, March, 1863, to July, 1865. Mustered out July 19, 1865.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the 3, p. Rebellion, Part 1495

9th Independent Company Ohio Sharpshooters.

Organized February 26, 1864. Attached to 60th Ohio Infantry as Company "G."

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the 3, p. Rebellion, Part 1495

10th Independent Company Ohio Sharpshooters.

Organized April 1, 1864. Attached to 60th Ohio Infantry as Company "H."

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the 3, p. Rebellion, Part 1496

Monday, October 20, 2014

Diary of Josephine Shaw Lowell: September 22, 1861

Yesterday it was two months since the Battle of Bull Run and we have had no general action yet.  . . . Gen. Fremont's failing appears to be a desire to act independently. It was for that he was court-martialled, and for that that Lincoln blamed him in issuing his proclamation. It is a very natural desire in a true lover of his country to take the way he thinks best to save her, but a subordinate officer should obey the orders of the Commander-in-Chief.

SOURCE: William Rhinelander Stewart, The Philanthropic Work of Josephine Shaw Lowell, p. 19

Lieutenant-Colonel Theodore Lyman to Elizabeth Russell Lyman, November 1, 1863

Headquarters Army Of The Potomac
November 1, 1863

Buford was here last night, and said he thought he could just “boolge” across the river and scare the Rebels to death; which would certainly be a highly desirable event, for we should have quite a chance of a visit home. As it is, no resignations are accepted and scarcely a soul is allowed to go home, even for a visit of two or three days. The life here is miserably lazy; hardly an order to carry, and the horses all eating their heads off. The weather is fine, to be sure, and everybody, nearly, is well; but that is all the more reason for wishing something done. I do not even have the drudgery of drill and parade and inspection, that the infantrymen have. If one could only be at home, till one was wanted, and then be on the spot; but this is everywhere the way of war; lie still and lie still; then up and manoeuvre and march hard; then a big battle; and then a lot more lie still.

SOURCE: George R. Agassiz, Editor, Meade’s Headquarters, 1863-1865: Letters of Colonel Theodore Lyman from the Wilderness to Appomattox, p. 40-1

Major-General George G. Meade to Margaretta Sergeant Mead, May 25, 1864 – 9 a.m.

Headquarters Army Of The Potomac, 9 A. M., May 25, 1864.

Yours of the 21st reached me this morning, also one from your mother to the same effect, that it was too late to refuse the house. Setting aside the injustice to me of placing the affair in such condition that I have no option in the matter, I have written a letter to Mr. Gerhard, which I enclose, and which you can hand to him at such time as may be deemed suitable. My contributing friends must know there was nothing personal in my action, because I do not know the name of a single contributor. I acted on the general principle I have always held, that a public man makes a mistake when he allows his generous friends to reward him with gifts. I wrote Mr. Gerhard it was not a case of necessity, as, by proper economy, we could and should live on our means; that if anything should happen to me, then I would be grateful for the smallest assistance given to you and the children; but until that time, I thought it better for me to preserve my independence, although no one could be more sensible to and grateful for the generous kindness of my friends than I was. My opinions are still unchanged; but if the affair is settled, and it is too late to decline, I have no disposition to be ungenerous, and certainly no design of doing anything that would be offensive to the feelings of those who have been so kind to me. You can therefore take the house, and express to all you know my deep obligation and sincere gratitude.

The enemy, though he has fallen back, still confronts us, and is being reinforced.

SOURCE: George Meade, The Life and Letters of George Gordon Meade, Vol. 2, p. 198-9

Governor Samuel J. Kirkwood to Senator James W. Grimes, December 26, 1861

Executive Office, Iowa, Dec. 26, 1861.

Hon. James W. Grimes, Washington City, D. C:

Dear Sir: — Herewith find copy of a letter from Gov. Randall, of Wisconsin. In view of the great labor and responsibility of the governors of the northern states, I do not know but the suggestion of the Governor of Wisconsin is a timely one, had the general government the money to spare. We have all been doing labor as great as belongs to offices much better paid than ours have been, and have been bestowing offices all summer, the salaries of which are much higher than ours. And certainly our labor has been as important as any that has been done, and as it has been done for the United States, there would not be any impropriety in so acknowledging its value. But the government needs all its money and more, and there are other better uses to which to put the money. I am painfully impressed with the conviction that our regiments have not enough medical aid, and I would much rather congress would give an additional assistant surgeon to each regiment from Iowa than any pay to its Governor.

Very truly,
Samuel J. Kirkwood.

SOURCE: State Historical Society of Iowa, Iowa Historical Record, Volumes 1-3, Volume 2, No. 3, July 1886, p. 323

Proclamation of Governor Samuel J. Kirkwood, August 20, 1862

PROCLAMATION BY THE GOVERNOR.

The quota of this State of the 300,000 volunteers called for by the President on the 2d of July last is 10,570.

The quota of this State of the 300,000 militia required to be drafted by order of the President 4th of August instant is 10,570.

The quota of the first call is over full by the prompt and patriotic response of our people within the last few weeks. I am satisfied that from fifteen to twenty thousand men are now organized into companies awaiting organization into new regiments, and I am urging upon the War Department the acceptance of the whole number, and that our State be credited with the excess upon the second call for drafted men. But the War Department refuses, as yet, to give us such credit until the number of men required to fill the old regiments (8,005) shall have been furnished.

These men for the old regiments are sorely needed, and the cause of the country is better served by filling the old regiments than by raising new ones.

The officers and men of the old regiments have gained a knowledge of their duties by experience in the field, and new recruits joining their regiments have the benefit of this knowledge gained by their officers and comrades. An old regiment filled up with new recruits is more effective at the end of two weeks than a new regiment at the end of two months. In order, then, to get the credit due our State for the excess furnished over the first call, and in order to give the country this most effective assistance and sorely-needed help, we must fill up the old regiments. We can do this by volunteering until the first of September. If not done by that time the deficiency will be supplied by special draft, in addition to the draft under the second call.

I appeal, then, to every man for aid. Let everything else be laid aside until this needed work is done. Let the young men whose brothers and friends are in the old regiments take their places by their sides. Any person desiring to enter an old regiment can select the regiment and company he chooses, and then go with his acquaintances and friends.

So deeply am I impressed with the imperative necessity of filling the old regiments that I will, at the extra session of the General Assembly to convene on the third day of September, recommend to that body the creation of a State bounty, of such sum as may be deemed advisable, to all persons who shall, before the first day of September next, enlist in any one of the old regiments of this State.

I also earnestly advise all companies now incomplete, and which will not certainly be completed by the 23d instant, to abandon their attempt at organization as companies and enlist for the old regiments.

Samuel J. Kirkwood.
Governor of Iowa.

SOURCES: Henry Warren Lathrop, The Life and Times of Samuel J. Kirkwood, Iowa's War Governor, p. 218; Benjamin F. Shambaugh, The Messages and Proclamations of the Governors of Iowa, Volume 2, p. 499-501

Senator James W. Grimes to Admiral Samuel F. Du Pont, July 30, 1863

I duly received your favor of the 20th inst., and on the same day the gun captured on the Atlanta, sent by express. Accept my thanks for the present. I have fired it to-day, and find it to be a very wicked implement. It seems that Charleston is destined to be “a hard nut to crack,” in the hands of Gillmore and Dahlgren, as well as in the hands of their predecessor.

SOURCE: William Salter, The Life of James W. Grimes, p. 237

Diary of Private Alexander G. Downing: Monday, December 21, 1863

The Eleventh Iowa furnished the provost guard for the city, though I had to go with a picket squad.

Source: Alexander G. Downing, Edited by Olynthus B., Clark, Downing’s Civil War Diary, p. 158

Diary of Private Charles H. Lynch: March 28, 1864

Camp Hill, Bolivar Heights. Early this morning received orders to prepare three days' rations. Reported we are to go up the valley, scouting. Waiting for orders. At noontime rumors began to circulate that the regiment was ordered home to vote. The news seemed too good to be true. Orders came to detail two men from each company to remain as camp guard. Those who were detailed to remain felt very badly. All were anxious to see home. At this time the anti-war party was very strong in Connecticut, which may seem very strange. They were called copper-heads. Late in the afternoon orders came to fall in. A gay and happy crowd, marching and singing as we go down through Harper's Ferry, where a train was in waiting. Did not take us long to board the train, which soon got under way, bound for Baltimore. Singing, cheering, making merry as the train began to move, on over the Potomac River into Maryland.

SOURCE: Charles H. Lynch, The Civil War Diary, 1862-1865, of Charles H. Lynch 18th Conn. Vol's, p. 48

Diary of Luman Harris Tenney: November 23, 1861

Brownell and Brooks left on furlough, so I had double duties.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 4

25th Ohio Independent Battery Light Artillery.

Organized by detachment from 2nd Ohio Cavalry at Fort Scott, Kansas. August 27, 1862. First designated 3rd Kansas Independent Battery. Organized as 25th Ohio Battery February 17, 1863. Attached to 1st Brigade, 1st Division, Army of the Frontier, October, 1862, to June, 1863. Artillery, Cavalry Division, District Southeast Missouri, Dept. of Missouri, to August, 1863. Artillery, 1st Cavalry Division, Arkansas Expedition, to January, 1864. Columbus, Ohio, to April, 1864. Artillery, 3rd Division, 7th Army Corps, Dept. of Arkansas, to May, 1864. Artillery, 1st Division, 7th Army Corps, to February, 1865. Artillery, Cavalry Division, 7th Army Corps, to July, 1865. Garrison Artillery, Little Rock, Ark., Dept. of Arkansas, to December, 1865.

SERVICE.--Blount's Campaign in Missouri and Arkansas September 17-December 10, 1862. Expedition to Sarcoxie September 17-25. Reconnoissance to Newtonia September 29-31. Action at Newtonia September 30. Occupation of Newtonia October 4. Cane Hill November 29. Battle of Prairie Grove, Ark., December 7. Expedition to Van Buren, Ark., December 27-29. March over Ozark and Boston Mountains to Cane Creek, Mo., January 1-10, 1863. Moved to Camp Solomon February 27. Campaign against Marmaduke March and April. Ordered to Rolla, Mo., May 22 and refitting till June 26. Moved to Pilot Knob, Mo., June 26, and reported to General Davidson. Expedition against Price and Marmaduke in Arkansas. March to Clarendon, Ark., on White River July 1-August 8. Grand Prairie August 17. Steele's Expedition against Little Rock August 18-September 10. Bayou Metoe or Reed's Bridge August 27. Bayou Fourche and capture of Little Rock September 10. Duty at Little Rock till November. Ferry's Ford October 7. Duty at Benton, Pine Bluff, and Little Rock till January, 1864. Reconnoissance from Little Rock December 5-13, 1863. Reenlisted January 3, 1864. Moved to Columbus, Ohio, January 21-29. Return to Little Rock, Ark., March 17, and garrison duty there at Fort Steele till December, 1865. Mustered out December 12. 1865.

Battery lost during service 23 Enlisted men by disease. Total 23.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the 3, p. Rebellion, Part 1494-5

26th Ohio Independent Battery Light Artillery.

Organized at Camp Dennison, Ohio, as Company "F" 32nd Ohio Infantry, August, 1861. Left State for West Virginia September 15. At Grafton, W. Va., September 18, and at Beverly September 22. Attached to Kimball's Brigade, Reynolds' Command, West Virginia, to October, 1861. Cheat Mountain District, West Virginia, to November, 1861. Milroy's Brigade, Cheat Mountain District, to March, 1862. Milroy's Brigade, Mountain Department, to May, 1862. Schenck's Brigade, Mountain Department, to June, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 1st Army Corps, Army of Virginia, to July, 1862. Garrison at Winchester, Va., to September, 1862. Miles' Command, Harper's Ferry, W. Va., September, 1862.

SERVICE.--Stationed at Cheat Mountain Summit, W. Va., October, 1861. Action at Greenbrier October 3. Duty at Greenbrier till December 13. Camp Allegheny December 13. Ordered to Beverly and duty there till April, 1862. Expedition on the Seneca April 1-12. Action at Monterey April 12. At Staunton till May 7. Battle of McDowell May 8. March to Franklin and duty there till May 25. Pursuit of Jackson up the Shenandoah Valley. Battle of Cross Keys June 8. Duty at Strasburg and Winchester till July. Detached from 32nd Infantry for Artillery duty July 20, 1862, and stationed at Winchester till September 11. Retreat to Harper's Ferry September 11-12. Defence of Harper's Ferry September 12-15. Battery surrendered September 15. Paroled and sent to Annapolis, Md., thence to Chicago, Ill., and to Camp Taylor, Cleveland, Ohio. Exchanged January 12, 1863. Again attached to 32nd Infantry and moved to Memphis, Tenn., January 20-25, 1863. Attached to 3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, 17th Army Corps, to December, 1863. Moved to Lake Providence, La., February 20, and to Milliken's Bend, La., April 17. Movement on Bruinsburg and turning Grand Gulf April 25-30. Battle of Port Gibson, Miss., May 1. Raymond May 12. Jackson May 14. Champion's Hill May 16. Capture a Battery of six guns and assigned to duty as Artillery till August 3, 1863. Siege of Vicksburg, Miss., May 18-July 4. Assaults on Vicksburg May 19 and 22. Attached to Battery "D" 1st Illinois Artillery and to 3rd Ohio Battery August 3 to December 22, 1863, and garrison duty at Vicksburg, Miss. Served with Artillery, 3rd Division, 17th Army Corps. Expedition to Monroe, La., August 20-September 2, 1863. Expedition to Canton and Brownsville October 14-20. Permanently detached from 32nd Ohio as 26th Ohio Battery December 22, 1864. On Veteran furlough January 1 to February 3, 1864. Meridian Campaign February 3-March 2. Duty at Vicksburg till November, 1864, attached to Maltby's Brigade, District of Vicksburg. Expedition to Rodney and Fayette September 29-October 3. Expedition to Woodville October 4-11. Woodville October 5-6. Moved to Natchez, Miss., and garrison duty there till April, 1865. Ordered to Texas April, 1865, and duty on the Rio Grande, Texas, till August. Ordered home for muster out. Mustered out at Todd's Barracks, Columbus, Ohio, September 2, 1865.

Battery lost during service 22 Enlisted men by disease.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the 3, p. Rebellion, Part 1495

Sunday, October 19, 2014

Major Rutherford B. Hayes to Sardis Birchard, August 24, 1861

Beverly, Virginia, August 24, 1861.

Dear Uncle: — Thank you for the postage stamps. The traitors at home, you need not fear.  . . . We are needed here. Shall march towards the enemy tomorrow again. I am better pleased with this than with the main army at Washington.

Affectionately,
R. B. Hayes.
S. BlRCHARD.

SOURCE: Charles Richard Williams, editor, Diary and Letters of Rutherford Birchard Hayes, Volume 2, p. 75-6

James Russell Lowell to Thomas Hughes, September 9, 1863

Harvard College, Sept. 9, 1863.

My dear Hughes, — Will you do anything that lies in your way for my young friend Mr. Lincoln, and very much oblige me thereby? He wishes particularly to see you, and would like a few hints about employing his very short time in London well. He has been one of our tutors here.

To almost any other Englishman I should think it needful to explain that he is not President Lincoln, you are all so “shady” in our matters. The Times, I see, has now sent over an “Italian” to report upon us — a clever man, but a double foreigner, as an Italian with an English wash over him. Pray, don't believe a word he says about our longing to go to war with England. We are all as cross as terriers with your kind of neutrality, but the last thing we want is another war. If the rebel iron-clads are allowed to come out, there might be a change.

If you can give Mr. Lincoln any hints or helps for seeing Oxford you would be doing him a great kindness, and adding another to the many you have done me.

Cordially yours,
J. R. Lowell

SOURCE: Charles Eliot Norton, Editor, Letters of James Russell Lowell, Volume 1, p. 372-3

George William Curtis to John J. Pinkerton, April 13, 1860

North Shore, 13th April, 1860.

My Dear Pinkerton, — Thanks for your kind response. I have had the same suspicion of Pennsylvania, but my general feeling is this: that the nomination of Mr. Bates would so chill and paralyze the youth and ardor which are the strength of the Republican party; would so cheer the Democrats as a merely available move, showing distrust of our own position and power; would so alienate the German Northwest, and so endanger a bolt from the straight Republicans of New England, — that the possible gain of Pennsylvania and New Jersey, and even Indiana, might be balanced. Add to this that defeat with Bates is the utter destruction of our party organization, and that success with him is very doubtful victory, and I cannot but feel that upon the whole his nomination is an act of very uncertain wisdom.

It is very true that there is no old Republican, because the party is young, and it will not do to ask too sharply when a man became a Republican. Moreover, a man like Mr. Bates may very properly have been a Fillmore man in '56, because he might not have believed that the Slavery party was as resolved and desperate as it immediately showed itself in the Dred Scott business; this is all true, but human nature cries out against the friends of Fremont in '56 working for a Fillmore man in '60, and there is a good deal of human nature in the public. The nomination of Mr. Bates will plunge the really Republican States into a syncope. If they are strong enough to remain Republican while they are apathetic, then in the border States you may decide the battle.
I think New York is very sure for the Chicago man, whoever he is; but if Bates is the man, we shall have to travel upon our muscle!! Individually believing, as I do, in the necessary triumph of our cause by causes superior to the merely political, I should prefer a fair fight upon the merits of the case between Douglas and Seward, or Hunter or Guthrie and Seward. I think Douglas will be the Charleston man.

Thank you once more.
Yours faithfully,
George William Curtis.

SOURCE: Edward Cary, George William Curtis, p. 130-2

Charles Russell Lowell to Anna C. Jackson Lowell, May 25, 1861

Washington, May 25, /61.

After the movement yesterday across the river, all passing to and fro was forbidden; but Mr. Dalton and myself, by going up to Georgetown and making interest with the Irishmen of the 69th, who have a rather Milesian idea of sentry's duty, succeeded in getting into Virginia. We visited the earthworks and many of the camps, and dined at Arlington House on corn pone and milk. There were no troops yesterday within two miles of Arlington, and the place was just in the prime of its Spring beauty. I have seen no place like it in this country — for position and for well-improved natural advantages. I suppose to-day it is occupied, and in spite of its importance and of its owner's treason, I cannot think of it with much pleasure.

How are Jim Savage and Henry coming on? I hear there is some hitch about their regiment — nothing serious, I hope.

I have been in Washington more than four weeks — in spite of fairest promises, I have not got my commission yet, but still have faith. If I have been of any use to the Massachusetts troops, I am very glad of it.

I wish our people would not feel so very anxious about their comfort. Their health and morale is excellent and they are as efficient as any troops here. I am sure you do not worry so much about my comfort, and I do not see why other mothers should. The greatest kindness to our troops now is to teach them to use what they have.

SOURCE: Edward Waldo Emerson, Life and Letters of Charles Russell Lowell, p. 209-10

Diary of Josephine Shaw Lowell: September 19, 1861

Spent today and yesterday in collecting contributions for our Society, $110.00. Mr. William Winthrop spent the evening here and states it as his opinion that the war is to last three years, while Father and Uncle Jim think that it will be over in three, or at most six, months. May they prove the truer prophets.

SOURCE: William Rhinelander Stewart, The Philanthropic Work of Josephine Shaw Lowell, p. 19

Review: The West Point History of the Civil War


by The United States Military Academy, Edited by
Clifford J. Rogers, Ty Siedule & Samuel J. Watson

The United States Military Academy was established at West Point, New York on March 16 1802.  The Academy, colloquially known as “West Point” has and continues to train its cadets in a rigorous four-year program for future service as officers in The United States Army.  Graduates of the academy have led soldiers into battle in every American conflict since the War of 1812, including the Civil War.

New estimates of the put the casualties of the Civil War at over 700,000, a figure more than all other American wars combined.  Officers trained at “The Point” led armies on both sides of the war, and often classmates found themselves opposing each other on opposite sides of the battlefields of the war.  Therefore it is fitting that the Academy has published “The West Point History of the Civil War.”  Published by Simon & Schuster, it is the first volume in a series “The West Point History of Warfare.”

“The West Point History of the Civil War” is a large book of 448 pages, measuring 10.9 x 8.6 x 1.6 inches, and weighing 4.2 pounds.  Its semi-glossy pages are richly illustrated with maps, photographs and illustrations highlighting the personalities, battles, and places of the Civil War era.  The book is divided into 6 chapters, each covering a period or aspect of the war and each written by some of Americas best and most prominent historians:

  • Origins of the Civil War and the Contest for the Borderlands by Mark E. Neely Jr.
  • The War in the East: July 1861-September 1862 by Joseph T. Glatthaar.
  • Lee’s War in the East, by Joseph T. Glatthaar.
  • Grant’s War in the West by Steven E. Woodworth.
  • Coordinated Strategy and Hard War by Earl J. Hess.
  • The End of the War and Reconstruction by James K. Hogue.

An in dept study of the war it is not, but nor does it claim to be.  It is an excellent survey of the war, its battles and its participants.  The maps alone, many of them 2 or 3 page fold-outs, are worth the price of this book, not only are they large and clear, but also include nearly 360° eyelevel panoramas of battlefield terrains as the participants would have seen them 150 years ago.

In addition to the text short thumbnail biographies of the war’s most notable participants are peppered throughout the book, and not only include their birth and death dates, but also when applicable the class in which they graduated from the Academy.

The books thick semi-glossy pages are a perfect format for duplicating the maps, photographs and works of art featured between its covers.  It is a thoroughly beautiful book, and would be completely enjoyable just to thumb through on a rainy day and peruse its many gorgeous illustrations.

“The West Point History of the Civil War” is a fantastic book, and would be an excellent addition to any history lover’s library.  It serves as a great introduction to the Civil War for novices, and I think even heavily read students of the Civil War would take something away from it.

ISBN 978-1476782621, Simon & Schuster, © 2014, Hardcover, 448 pages, 10.9 x 8.6 x 1.6 inches, Maps, Photographs, Illustrations, End Notes & Index. $55.00.  To purchase this book click HERE.

Lieutenant-Colonel Theodore Lyman to Elizabeth Russell Lyman, October 28, 1863

October 28, 1863

. . . The guerillas are extremely saucy of late, and, in a small way, annoying. Night before last they dashed at a waggon train and cut loose upwards of a hundred mules and horses, which they made off with, teamsters and all, leaving the waggons untouched. These men are regularly enlisted, but have no pay, getting, in lieu thereof, all the booty they can take, except horses, which they must sell to the Rebels at a fixed rate. They have taken several officers who, from carelessness, or losing their way, have gone alone beyond the lines. Prisoners are treated with consideration, but I fancy that, from all accounts, Libby Prison is pretty dirty and crowded. When some of our officers were taken through Warrenton, on the retreat of Lee, the inhabitants gave them supper; for the 6th Corps were long quartered there and treated the people kindly. When you are here you see how foolish and blind is the clamor raised by some people, to have all property destroyed by the army in the Rebel states, as the troops passed. There was, you know, a great talk about putting guards over houses of Rebels; but, 1st, it is very wrong to punish a people en masse, without regard to their degree of guilt and without properly measuring the punishment; and, 2d, nothing so utterly and speedily demoralizes an army as permission to plunder. It is our custom to put guards over the houses that are inhabited; but, despite that, the cavalry and advanced guard take a good slice of the live-stock; forage, and vegetables. . . .

SOURCE: George R. Agassiz, Editor, Meade’s Headquarters, 1863-1865: Letters of Colonel Theodore Lyman from the Wilderness to Appomattox, p. 39-40

Major-General George G. Meade to Margaretta Sergeant Mead, May 24, 1864 – 9 a.m.

Headquarters Army Of The Potomac, May 24, 9 A. M., 1864.

We have maneuvered the enemy away from their strong position on the Po, near Spottsylvania Court House, and now have compelled them to fall back from the North Anna River, which they tried to hold. Yesterday Warren and Hancock both had engagements with them, and were successful. We undoubtedly have the morale over them, and will eventually, I think, compel them to go into Richmond; after that, nous verrons.

I am writing this letter in the House of God, used for general headquarters. What a scene and commentary on the times!1
_______________

1 Battle of North Anna. Federal loss — killed, wounded, and missing — May 22-31,1864 — 1,607 (O. R.).

SOURCE: George Meade, The Life and Letters of George Gordon Meade, Vol. 2, p. 198

Governor Alexander W. Randall to Governor Samuel J. Kirkwood, December 23, 1861

Executive Office, Madison, Dec. 23, 1861.
His Excy. Gov. Kirkwood, Iowa:

Dear Sir: — It seems to me that the large amount of labor and responsibility thrown upon the executives of the several states during the past season entitle them to some consideration at the hands of congress. In all cases where forces enough have been sent from any state to entitle the state to an appointment of a Major-General, the Governor ought to be paid the compensation of a Major-General. In all other cases to be paid the compensation of a Brigadier-General, and congress ought to make an appropriation for the purpose. I propose that we make common cause with our members of congress to favor such an act. If the idea meets your approval, please write your members on the subject.

Very respectfully,
Alex. W. Randall.

SOURCE: State Historical Society of Iowa, Iowa Historical Record, Volumes 1-3, Volume 2, No. 3, July 1886, p. 322-3

Governor Samuel J. Kirkwood to Edwin M. Stanton, August 12, 1862 – 8:45 p.m.

DAVENPORT, August 12, 1862 8.45 p.m.
(Received 9.30 p.m.)
Hon. EDWIN M. STANTON,
Secretary of War:

Will Colonel Byam's Temperance Regiment and Colonel O'Connor's Irish regiment be allowed longer than the 15th instant to fill up? I will have ten regiments instead of five under your requisition of July 8 by telegraph. They will be full this week. You must accept them as volunteers. They enlisted to escape the disgrace of a draft, as they conceive it, and it will not do to refuse them. Answer immediately.

 SAML. J. KIRKWOOD.

SOURCE: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series III, Volume 2 (Serial No. 123), p. 362; Henry Warren Lathrop, The Life and Times of Samuel J. Kirkwood, Iowa's War Governor, p. 216-7;

Senator James W. Grimes to Admiral Samuel F. Du Pont, May 26, 1863

Burlington, May 26, 1863.

Absence from home, and very numerous duties in the State, crowded into the comparatively short period of the recess, have caused me to be neglectful of the fact that I have not written you since you attacked Charleston, though I recollect writing very near that time. The result was not such as we all hoped, and as I confess I anticipated, though I will at the same time honestly confess that I could never give a reason for the faith that was in me. I always supposed that there was to be some cooperative land-force; I was mistaken in this, it appears. I have carefully read all the reports of the engagement. They have been read by every one. You may rely upon it that the public fully justifies you in withdrawing from the contest when you did. It would have been extreme folly to continue it longer. It is evident to every one that the article in the Baltimore American was prompted by some sinister motive, and in receiving that attack you only experience what all our commanders upon land or water have been or will be subject to, no matter how successful they may have been, or may be. It must be a gratification to you to feel that the same amount of confidence is reposed in you that was placed in you both by the Department and the nation before the battle.

We are now rejoicing over a supposed victory at Vicksburg. Our people are as truly loyal, devoted, and determined as ever. I see not the slightest abatement among the people of this region of their firm resolution to crush out the rebellion, and to have indeed a “Nation.

SOURCE: William Salter, The Life of James W. Grimes, p. 236-7

Diary of Private Alexander G. Downing: Sunday, December 20, 1863

Quite pleasant weather. We had our regular company inspection at 9 o'clock today with dress parade at 5 o'clock.

Source: Alexander G. Downing, Edited by Olynthus B., Clark, Downing’s Civil War Diary, p. 158

Diary of Private Charles H. Lynch: March 25, 1864

Marching orders received to report at regimental headquarters, Camp Hill, Bolivar Heights, near Harper's Ferry. A cold rain storm on at this time. On account of a hard cold, with a number of others, went to Harper's Ferry by cars. There met by ambulance and rode to camp. My first ride in an ambulance. Bad getting around in camp on account of the deep mud. Harper's Ferry is a side hill town. The Potomac and the Shenandoah on either side. Here the B. & O. R. R. crosses the Potomac into Maryland. Above Harper's Ferry is located the Jefferson Rock, where one gets a fine view. The scenery at this point is grand. The mountains, rivers, and the valley, and also the great Maryland Heights.

SOURCE: Charles H. Lynch, The Civil War Diary, 1862-1865, of Charles H. Lynch 18th Conn. Vol's, p. 47-8

Diary of Luman Harris Tenney: November 21, 1861

Visited Uncle Washington's boat “The Rawson.” Heard Gough lecture.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 4

22nd Ohio Independent Battery Light Artillery

One section organized April 1, 1863. Moved to Wheeling, W. Va., April 1. Duty there and in Holmes county, Ohio, till June. Moved to Camp Chase, Ohio, June 19. Battery organization completed at Camp Chase and mustered in July 14, 1863. Moved to Parkersburg, W. Va., thence to Wheeling, W. Va., and, to Hancock, Md., to support Kelly's operations against General Lee in his retreat from Gettysburg, Pa. Sent to operate against Morgan, July. Moved to Camp Nelson, Ky., August 12, 1863. Attached to Willcox's Left Wing forces, 9th Army Corps, Dept. of the Ohio, to October, 1863. De-Courcy's Brigade, Cumberland Gap, Willcox's Left Wing forces, 9th Army Corps, to January, 1864. District of the Clinch, Dept. of the Ohio, to April, 1864. 1st Brigade, 4th Division, 23rd Army Corps, Dept. of the Ohio, to August, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 4th Division, 23rd Army Corps, to February, 1865. 2nd Brigade, 4th Division, District of East Tennessee, Dept. of the Cumberland, to July, 1865.

SERVICE. – Expedition to Cumberland Gap August 17-September 7. Operations about Cumberland Gap September 7-10. Capture of Cumberland Gap September 9. Duty there till June 27, 1864. Action at Crab Gap December 5. 1863. Reconnoissance from Cumberland Gap January 3, 1864. Near Cumberland Gap June 21. Moved to Knoxville, Tenn, June 27, 1864, and garrison duty there till July 5, 1865. Ordered to Camp Chase, Ohio, July 5. Mustered out July 13, 1865.

Battery lost during service 1 Officer and 2 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 1 Officer and 16 Enlisted men by disease. Total 20.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the 3, p. Rebellion, Part 1494

23rd Ohio Independent Battery Light Artillery

Detached from 2nd Kentucky Infantry 1861. No record in Ohio troops. See Simmons' 1st Kentucky Battery.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the 3, p. Rebellion, Part 1494

24th Ohio Independent Battery Light Artillery.

Organized at Camp Dennison, Ohio, and mustered in August 4, 1863. Ordered to Cincinnati, Ohio, September 22, thence moved to Johnson's Island, Sandusky Bay, Ohio, November 10, and duty there guarding Rebel prisoners till August 6, 1864. Moved to Camp Chas August 6, thence to Camp Douglas, Chicago, Ill., August 27, and duty there guarding Rebel prisoners till June 10, 1865. Mustered out June 24, 1865.

Battery lost during service 6 by disease.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the 3, p. Rebellion, Part 1494

Saturday, October 18, 2014

James Russell Lowell to Sarah Blake Sturgis Shaw, August 28, 1863

Elmwood, Aug. 28, 1863.

My dear Sarah, — Not a day has passed since I heard the dreadful news1 that I have not thought tenderly of you and yours; but I could not make up my mind to write you, and the longer I put it off the harder it grew. I have tried several times, and broken down. I knew you would be receiving all manner of consolation, and, as I know that consolation is worse than nothing, I would not add mine. There is nothing for such a blow as that but to bow the head and bear it. We may think of many things that in some measure make up for such a loss, but we can think of nothing that will give us back what we have lost. The best is that, so far as he was concerned, all was noble and of the highest example.

I have been writing something about Robert, and if, after keeping a little while, it should turn out to be a poem, I shall print it; but not unless I think it some way worthy of what I feel, however far the best verse falls short of noble living and dying such as his.

I would rather have my name known and blest, as his will be, through all the hovels of an outcast race, than blaring from all the trumpets of repute. . . .

If the consolation of the best is wearisome, it is yet something to have the sympathy of every one, as I know you and Frank have. God bless and sustain you!

Your always loving
J. R. Lowell.
_______________

1 Of the death of her only son, the gallant Colonel Shaw, one of the most heroic of the youths who offered their lives in the Civil War to their country and to freedom.

SOURCE: Charles Eliot Norton, Editor, Letters of James Russell Lowell, Volume 1, p. 366-7

Review: The Ones They Left Behind

By Antonio Elmaleh

Harriman Hickenlooper, a veteran of the 6th Iowa Infantry, came back from what some would call “The War of the Rebellion” and what others later would call the “War Between the States” with an unkept promise, a score to settle and a debt to repay.  His parents who had taken out a mortgage on the family farm had both died during the war; his brother Alonzo would also die in the war in Harriman’s arms.  It has been two years since Harriman had returned home.  The Appanoose County farmer was heavily in debt, behind on the mortgage payments and struggling to keep up the family farm all on his own.

Walter Ridley, formerly the Colonel of the 6th Iowa Infantry and now after the war was on the board of directors of the “Farmer’s and Merchant’s Bank,” Centerville, Iowa’s only bank, which held the note on the Hickenlooper farm.  In a move to avoid the embarrassment to bank foreclosing on one of Appanoose County’s war veterans, Ridley, bought the loan from the bank.

At a meeting of Centerville’s veterans, Harriman proposes a bet between he and Colonel Ridley; that Harriman could walk from Atlanta to Savannah, following the path taken by the 6th Iowa during William T. Sherman’s March to the Sea, unarmed, while carrying a United States flag, and return to Centerville unharmed by January 1, 1868 (giving Harriman 44 to complete the fete) with tangible proof of his journey.  If he makes it back by New Year’s Day he will get his farm free and clear, if he doesn’t Ridley will get the farm.

Seventeen year old Rufus Dewes, a young man wanting desperately to become a newspaper reporter, instantly senses Harriman’s journey would make a great story, and convinces Harriman to let him tag along on the journey.  Rufus periodically sends back dispatches to Jack Connolly, editor of Centerville’s newspaper, The Loyal Citizen, in which they are published.  The articles are quickly picked up by other newspapers across the country, and Harriman’s journey becomes a nationwide sensation as people clamor for details and wonder whether or not he will make it back in time, or even make it back at all.

Along the their journey Harriman and Rufus are joined by a former slave named Jed, emancipated in name only, until the timely arrival of the Northerners, and Lucinda McWhorter, a young Georgia woman left destitute by the misfortunes of war.  Will the quartet make it alive to Savannah?  And if they do will Harriman make it back to Centerville in time to save his farm?  And who are “The Ones They Left Behind?”  You will have to read the book to find out for yourself.

Iowa and family connections added to my experience of reading this book.  Being a native of south-central Iowa, I was greatly surprised to pick up Mr. Elmaleh’s book, and realize it was partially set in Centerville, a real town in Iowa, and county seat of Appanoose County.  My great Grandmother, Mary Alice Byrd Luce, is buried in Jerome, a small town just a few miles west of Centerville, so I am familiar with the area.  Centerville and the 6th Iowa Infantry are the only real things in this book; the bank, the newspaper, the townspeople, and the members of the 6th Iowa Infantry are all fictional creations of the author.  My father’s uncle, Lowell Miller, a medic during the Korean War, was killed in action and died in his brother’s arms, which reflected the story of Harriman and Alonzo, and gave to me an extra sense of poignancy to the story.  And further my great great grandfather’s name was Alonzo Luce, and three of his brothers served in the Union Army during the Civil War, all of them, however were in different units and did not serve together.  I also have several other relatives who participated in the march to Savannah.

Mr. Elmaleh states he based his novel on a newspaper article about a real Civil War Veteran who retraced Sherman’s route from Atlanta to Savannah, but he does not reveal any details of the actual historical event.  “The Ones They Left Behind” is well written and engaging.  It is a quickly read page turner that I found myself unable to put down.

ISBN 978-0990640622, 21 Cent Imprints Llc, © 2014, Hardcover, 260 pages, $19.95.  To purchase click HERE.

Charles Russell Lowell to John M. Forbes, May 21, 1861

Washington, May 21, 1861.

I shall not try to thank you for all you have done for me during the last ten days — I felt it more yesterday on getting letters . . . one from yourself, one from Judge Hoar, and one from home. Still, I do not change my purpose about going into the Artillery, and am only sorry that there has been a misunderstanding.  . . . I thought I had made it clear to Judge Hoar, and clearer to Mr. Burt, that I would do what I could for a short time, but only until the right man could be sent out permanently. He should be a man of age and weight, — should be able to put the screws on Cameron occasionally.

SOURCE: Edward Waldo Emerson, Life and Letters of Charles Russell Lowell, p. 208-9

Abraham Lincoln to Major-General John C. Fremont, September 2, 1861

Private and confidential.

Washington D. C. Sept. 2, 1861.
Major General Fremont,

My dear Sir: Two points in your proclamation of August 30th give me some anxiety. First, should you shoot a man, according to the proclamation, the Confederates would very certainly shoot our best man in their hands in retaliation; and so, man for man, indefinitely. It is therefore my order that you allow no man to be shot, under the proclamation, without first having my approbation or consent.

Secondly, I think there is great danger that the closing paragraph, in relation to the confiscation of property, and the liberating slaves of traiterous owners, will alarm our Southern Union friends, and turn them against us.  perhaps ruin our rather fair prospect for Kentucky. Allow me therefore to ask, that you will as of your own motion, modify that paragraph so as to conform to the first and fourth sections of the act of Congress, entitled, “An act to confiscate property used for insurrectionary purposes,” approved August, 6th, 1861, and a copy of which act I herewith send you. This letter is written in a spirit of caution and not of censure

I send it by a special messenger, in order that it may certainly and speedily reach you.

Yours very truly
A. Lincoln

SOURCES: Roy P. Basler, editor, Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, Volume 4, p. 508; A copy of this letter can be found in The Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress

Major-General John C. Fremont to Abraham Lincoln, September 8, 1861

HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEPARTMENT,
Saint Louis, September 8, 1861.

The PRESIDENT:

MY DEAR SIR: Your letter of the 2d, by special messenger, I know to have been written before you had received my letter, and before my telegraphic dispatches and the rapid development of critical conditions here had informed you of affairs in this quarter. I had not written to you fully and frequently, first, because in the incessant change of affairs I would be exposed to give you contradictory accounts; and, secondly, because the amount of the subjects to be laid before you would demand too much of your time.

Trusting to have your confidence, I have been leaving it to events themselves to show you whether or not I was shaping affairs here according to your ideas. The shortest communication between Washington and Saint Louis generally involves two days, and the employment of two days in time of war goes largely towards success or disaster. I therefore went along according to my own judgment, leaving the result of my movements to justify me with you.

And so in regard to my proclamation of the 30th. Between the rebel armies, the Provisional Government, and home traitors, I felt the position bad and saw danger. In the night I decided upon the proclamation and the form of it. I wrote it the next morning and printed it the same day. I did it without consultation or advice with any one, acting solely with my best judgment to serve the country and yourself, and perfectly willing to receive the amount of censure which should be thought due if I had made a false movement. This is as much a movement in the war as a battle, and in going into these I shall have to act according to my judgment of the ground before me, as I did on this occasion. If upon reflection your better judgment still decides that I am wrong in the article respecting the liberation of slaves, I have to ask that you will openly direct me to make the correction. The implied censure will be received as a soldier always should the reprimand of his chief. If I were to retract of my own accord, it would imply that I myself thought it wrong, and that I had acted without the reflection which the gravity of the point demanded. But I did not. I acted with full deliberation, and upon the certain conviction that it was a measure right and necessary, and I think so still.

In regard to the other point of the proclamation to which you refer, I desire to say that I do not think the enemy can either misconstrue or urge anything against it, or undertake to make unusual retaliation. The shooting of men who shall rise in arms against an army in the military occupation of a country is merely a necessary measure of defense, and entirely according to the usages of civilized warfare. The article does not at all refer to prisoners of war, and certainly our enemies have no ground for requiring that we should waive in their benefit any of the ordinary advantages which the usages of war allow to us. As promptitude is itself an advantage in war, I have also to ask that you will permit me to carry out upon the spot the provisions of the proclamation in this respect. Looking at affairs from this point of view, I am satisfied that strong and vigorous measures have now become necessary to the success of our arms; and hoping that my views may have the honor to meet your approval,

I am, with respect and regard, very truly, yours,
 J. C. FREMONT.

SOURCES: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volume 3 (Serial No. 3), p. 377-378; A copy of this letter can be found in The Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress

Abraham Lincoln to Major-General John C. Fremont, Wednesday, September 11, 1861

Washington, D. C. Sep. 11. 1861.
Major General John C. Fremont.

Sir: Yours of the 8th in answer to mine of 2nd Inst. is just received. Assuming that you, upon the ground, could better judge of the necessities of your position than I could at this distance, on seeing your proclamation of August 30th I saw perceived no general objection to it.

The particular clause, however, in relation to the confiscation of property and the liberation of slaves, appeared to me to be objectionable, in it's non-conformity to the Act of Congress passed the 6th of last August upon the same subjects; and hence I wrote you expressing my wish that that clause should be modified accordingly.  Your answer, just received, expresses the preference on your part, that I should make an open order for the modification, which I very cheerfully do.  It is therefore ordered that the said clause of said proclamation mentioned be so modified, held, and construed, as to conform to, and not to transcend, the provisions on the same subject contained in the Act of Congress entitled “An Act to confiscate property used for insurrectionary purposes” Approved, August 6. 1861; and that said act be published at length with this order.

Your Obt. Servt
A. Lincoln

SOURCE: Roy P. Basler, editor, Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, Volume 4, p. 517-8; A copy of this letter can be found in The Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress

Diary of Josephine Shaw Lowell: September 16, 1861

Yesterday there was a letter from the President to Fremont saying that he wished him to modify his proclamation in regard to slaves and that he expressed his desire publicly at the request of Gen. Fremont, whom he had privately informed of it before. Today those nasty papers say that Fremont will resign. I wish they might all be cut off in the midst of their career and not be allowed to publish a single issue for six months.

SOURCE: William Rhinelander Stewart, The Philanthropic Work of Josephine Shaw Lowell, p. 19

An Act To Confiscate Property Used For Insurrectionary Purposes, August 6, 1861

AN ACT to confiscate property used for insurrectionary purposes.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That if, during the present or any future insurrection against the Government of the United States, after the President of the United States shall have declared, by proclamation, that the laws of the United States are opposed, and the execution thereof obstructed, by combinations too powerful to be suppressed by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings, or by the power vested in the marshals by law, any person or persons, his, her, or their agent, attorney, or employé, shall purchase or acquire, sell or give, any property of whatsoever kind or description, with intent to use or employ the same, or suffer the same to be used or employed, in aiding, abetting, or promoting such insurrection or resistance to the laws, or any person or persons engaged therein; or if any person or persons, being the owner or owners of any such property, shall knowingly use or employ, or consent to the use or employment of the same as aforesaid, all such property is hereby declared to be lawful subject of prize and capture wherever found; and it shall be the duty of the President of the United States to cause the same to be seized, confiscated, and condemned.

Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That such prizes and capture shall be condemned in the district or circuit court of the United States having jurisdiction of the amount, or in admiralty in any district in which the same may be seized, or into which they may be taken and proceedings first instituted.

Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That the Attorney-General, or any district attorney of the United States in which said property may at the time be, may institute the proceedings of condemnation, and in such case they shall be wholly for the benefit of the United States; or any person may file an information with such attorney, in which case the proceedings shall be for the use of such informer and the United States in equal parts.

Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That whenever hereafter, during the present insurrection against the Government of the United States, any person claimed to be held to labor or service under the law of any State, shall be required or permitted by the person to whom such labor or service is claimed to be due, or by the lawful agent of such person, to take up arms against the United States, or shall be required or permitted by the person to whom such labor or service is claimed to be due, or his lawful agent, to work or to be employed in or upon any fort, navy-yard, dock, armory, ship, entrenchment, or in any military or naval service whatsoever, against the Government and lawful authority of the United States, then, and in every such case, the person to whom such labor or service is claimed to be due shall forfeit his claim to such labor, any law of the State or of the United States to the contrary notwithstanding. And whenever thereafter the person claiming such labor or service shall seek to enforce his claim, it shall be a full and sufficient answer to such claim that the person whose service or labor is claimed had been employed in hostile service against the Government of the United States, contrary to the provisions of this act.

Approved, August 6, 1861.

SOURCE: The Reports of the Committees of the House of Representatives for the Third Session of the Fifty-Third Congress 1894-95, Volume 1, p. 2-3

Lieutenant-Colonel Theodore Lyman to Elizabeth Russell Lyman, October 26, 1863

Headquarters Army Of Potomac
October 26, 1863

Ah! we are a doleful set of papas here. Said General Meade: “I do wish the Administration would get mad with me, and relieve me; I am sure I keep telling them, if they don't feel satisfied with me, to relieve me; then I could go home and see my family in Philadelphia.” I believe there never was a man so utterly without common ambition and, at the same time, so Spartan and conscientious in everything he does. He is always stirring up somebody. This morning it was the cavalry picket line, which extends for miles, and which he declared was ridiculously placed. But, by worrying, and flaring out unexpectedly on various officers, he does manage to have things pretty ship-shape; so that an officer of Lee's Staff, when here the other day, said: “Meade's move can't be beat.” Did I tell you that Lee passed through Warrenton and passed a night. He was received with bouquets and great joy.  . . . The last three nights have been cool, almost cold, with some wind, so that they have been piling up the biggest kind of camp-fires. You would laugh to see me in bed! First, I spread an india-rubber blanket on the ground, on which is laid a cork mattress, which is a sort of pad, about an inch thick, which you can roll up small for packing. On this comes a big coat, and then I retire, in flannel shirt and drawers, and cover myself, head and all, with three blankets, laying my pate on a greatcoat folded, with a little india-rubber pillow on top; and so I sleep very well, though the surface is rather hard and lumpy. I have not much to tell you of yesterday, which was a quiet Sunday. Many officers went to hear the Rebs preach, but I don't believe in the varmint. They ingeniously prayed for “all established magistrates”; though, had we not been there, they would have roared for the safety of Jeff Davis and Bob Lee! . . .

SOURCE: George R. Agassiz, Editor, Meade’s Headquarters, 1863-1865: Letters of Colonel Theodore Lyman from the Wilderness to Appomattox, p. 38-9

Major-General George G. Meade to Margaretta Sergeant Mead, May 23, 1864 – 8 a.m.

Headquarters Army Of The Potomac, 8 A. M., May 23, 1864.

We expected yesterday to have another battle, but the enemy refuses to fight unless attacked in strong entrenchments; hence, when we moved on his flank, instead of coming out of his works and attacking us, he has fallen back from Spottsylvania Court House, and taken up a new position behind the North Anna River; in other words, performed the same operation which I did last fall, when I fell back from Culpeper, and for which I was ridiculed; that is to say, refusing to fight on my adversary's terms. I suppose now we will have to repeat this turning operation, and continue to do so, till Lee gets into Richmond.

I am sorry you will not change your opinion of Grant. I think you expect too much of him. I don't think he is a very magnanimous man, but I believe he is above any littleness, and whatever injustice is done me, and it is idle to deny that my position is a very unjust one, I believe is not intentional on his part, but arises from the force of circumstances, and from that weakness inherent in human nature which compels a man to look to his own interests.

SOURCE: George Meade, The Life and Letters of George Gordon Meade, Vol. 2, p. 198

Governor Samuel J. Kirkwood to Edwin M. Stanton, August 20, 1862

DAVENPORT, IOWA, August 20, 1862.
Hon. EDWIN M. STANTON,
Secretary of War:

First. There are companies now full and that will be filled by the 23d to fill eighteen to twenty regiments. Our whole State appears to be volunteering. Second. The companies are now coming into rendezvous as rapidly as I can furnish blankets for them. Could have them all in next week if I had blankets and could build quarters fast enough. Have blankets for only five regiments. Third. I don't want any further time than the 23d. All I want is to put into regiments all the companies full on that day. If I don't get this permission I will have to volunteer myself and leave the State.

 SAMUEL J. KIRKWOOD,
Governor.

SOURCE: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series III, Volume 2 (Serial No. 123), p. 417; Henry Warren Lathrop, The Life and Times of Samuel J. Kirkwood, Iowa's War Governor, p. 217;

Senator James W. Grimes to the Editor of the Linn County Register*, May 2, 1863


Burlington, May 2, 1863.

I have no very great desire to be reelected to the Senate. On the contrary, I am rather averse to the idea of continuing in public life beyond my present term. Our friends have insisted that I shall serve another term, and I have consented to do so, if, after having surveyed the whole field, they are satisfied that the interest of the country and our party require it, or that they are unable to secure the services of a better man. I have no great love for the place, and can leave it without a single regret, whenever a better man can be sent to Washington who can more faithfully represent our State. I did not seek nor did I anticipate the nomination for Governor, in 1854. When nominated without any agency of mine, as the representative of certain principles, I did my best to be elected. I never asked a man to vote for me to the Senate six years ago, though I was very grateful for the support I got. I have not asked and shall not ask any man to vote for me now. I cannot improve my condition in any respect by reelection. Every one knows my standing there; and, if satisfied with it, I shall receive their support; if dissatisfied with it, I ought not to receive it.
_______________

* In answer to an inquiry whether he was a candidate for reelection to the Senate.

SOURCE: William Salter, The Life of James W. Grimes, p. 236

Diary of Private Alexander G. Downing: Saturday, December 19, 1863

All is quiet around Vicksburg, and the weather is quite mild and pleasant, though quite cold at night. Our camp was cleaned up for inspection. I was out on picket again, though on higher ground than the previous time out.

Source: Alexander G. Downing, Edited by Olynthus B., Clark, Downing’s Civil War Diary, p. 158

Diary of Private Charles H. Lynch: Sunday, March 20, 1864

Detailed for picket duty. Posted about two miles up the river, between the river and the canal, on the tow path. Our company, C, and the Loudon Rangers ordered to ford the river for a scout into Virginia. Returned quite late. Nothing important obtained. Bad time of the year to ford rivers. Snow squalls still greet us. It doesn't last very long, but helps to increase the circulation of the mud. Campfire burning all the time. We often burn our clothes by keeping too close to it. We live close to the earth. In warm weather we have a better show to keep clean, bathe, and wash our clothes.

SOURCE: Charles H. Lynch, The Civil War Diary, 1862-1865, of Charles H. Lynch 18th Conn. Vol's, p. 47