Wednesday, April 17, 2019

Diary of Captain Luman Harris Tenney: April 10, 1865

Camped last night side by side with Lee's army. A great jubilee among the boys. Soon after sunrise moved out. Sheridan passed us. Cheered him as he passed. Camped at Prospect Station.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 160

Diary of Captain Luman Harris Tenney: April 11, 1865

Marched out in advance of the Corps — Custer commanding. Grant passed us. Boys cheered him lustily. Went into camp 9 miles from Burke's Station. Little rain.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 160

Diary of Captain Luman Harris Tenney: April 12, 1865

Marched at usual hour in rear of Division train. Bad roads and very tedious marching. Col. Nettleton met us near the Junction. Had a good visit with him. Line from home. How anxious I am to see dear mother and sisters. I love them more dearly than ever. Camped at B. New colors arrived. Rained. All begin to talk of home and peace. I do desire to be a true exemplary Christian during my remaining days.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 160

Diary of Captain Luman Harris Tenney: April 13, 1865

Contrary to the general expectation, marched. A little rain. Went into camp near Nottoway Station. Put up picket poles and laid out camp in order. Letter of the 6th from home. Folks are all resigned and cheerful. I am so glad.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 160

Diary of Captain Luman Harris Tenney: April 14, 1865

Spent the day reading the papers and writing letters. Wrote to Mr. Porter and Bails' people. The whole north seems jubilant over the glorious successes, and becomingly ascribes the praise to God. All seem disposed to be lenient to the enemy, too, all but Davis. Salute fired. Four years today since the flag came down from Sumter.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 160

Diary of Captain Luman Harris Tenney: April 15, 1865

Wrote several letters and read the papers. Yesterday put in application for leave of absence. I am very anxious to see my dear mother. Would that Johnston would be wise and surrender. Think he will be. Thank God that peace is so near and a united country will live to advance religion, justice and liberty. Forage detail. Virginians thoroughly submissive.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 160

Diary of Captain Luman Harris Tenney: April 16, 1865

Reveille at 4 A. M. with orders to move at 6. Orders countermanded on account of no rations. Went to sutler's and got cheese, buttermilk and cakes. Beautiful day. Letter from Minnie. Papers. A report that Lincoln was killed a short time since by an assassin. God grant it may not be true, for the country's good. Am happy today, my mind peaceful. Saw F. last night and night before. Lincoln assassinated. How great the loss to the country. All boys but two took a verbal temperance pledge. Got my leave and took the cars in evening.
________________

Note — After the surrender of Lee on April 9th, 1865, the Cavalry Corps, including the 2nd Ohio, marched southward to strike the remaining Confederate army commanded by Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, which was still confronting Sherman's army in North Carolina. Shortly after we had crossed the Roanoke River and entered North Carolina word came to us that Johnston had sensibly surrendered to Sherman and we marched northward to Richmond and Petersburg, and on to Washington, in time for the Grand Review. This episode in the Regiment's records is not mentioned in the diary because Major Tenney was at that time absent on leave at home. — A. B. N., June 10, 1911.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 160

Sunday, April 14, 2019

Official Reports of the Campaign in North Alabama and Middle Tennessee, November 14, 1864 — January 23, 1865: No. 145. Report of Col. William L. McMillen, Ninety-fifth Ohio Infantry, commanding First Brigade, of operations December 15-16, 1864.

No. 145.

Report of Col. William L. McMillen, Ninety-fifth Ohio Infantry, commanding First Brigade,
of operations December 15-16, 1864.

HEADQUARTERS FIRST BRIGADE, FIRST DIVISION,                       
DETACHMENT ARMY OF THE TENNESSEE,      
In the Field, December 25, 1864.

CAPTAIN: I have the honor to submit the following report of the part taken by this command in the recent engagements near Nashville, Tenn., on the 15th and 16th instant:

The following regiments and battery compose the brigade: Seventy-second Ohio Infantry Veteran Volunteers, Lieut. Col. C. G. Eaton commanding; Ninety-fifth Ohio Infantry Volunteers, Lieut. Col. Jefferson Brumback commanding; One hundred and fourteenth Illinois Infantry Volunteers, Capt. J. M. Johnson commanding; Ninety-third Indiana Infantry Volunteers, Capt. Charles A. Hubbard commanding; Tenth Minnesota Infantry Volunteers, Lieut. Col. S. P. Jennison commanding; Cogswell's Independent Battery Illinois Light Artillery, Second Lieut. S. H. McClaury commanding.

On the evening of the 14th instant I received from the general commanding division instructions to have my command ready to move the following morning at 6 o'clock, with three days' rations in haversack and fifty rounds of ammunition per man. I was ready at the hour designated, but owing to delay on the part of the cavalry did not move until near 9 a.m., taking the Charlotte pike, in the rear of the Second Brigade. Reaching the vicinity of Richland Creek, just beyond which the enemy's lines were established, I was directed to deploy, with my right resting on the Charlotte pike near Douglass' house. This was done accordingly, but whilst executing the movement the rebels opened with a battery, unhorsing Col. D.C. Thomas, Ninety-third Indiana Infantry, and severely wounding several men in the One hundred and fourteenth Illinois Infantry. I brought one section of artillery into action and silenced the guns of the enemy. Soon after this orders were received to move by the left flank, keeping my left close to the right of the Second Brigade. In this movement I described the arc of a large circle, and it was continued until we had crossed the Hardin pike, and reached the vicinity of the Hillsborough pike, where the enemy was found strongly posted on the side and summit of a high hill, with a four-gun battery in his lower and a two-gun battery in his upper work. A battery far to our right, belonging, I think, to some cavalry command, was engaging these guns when we came up. Deploying the Seventy-second Ohio Infantry as skirmishers, I advanced my battery to within 400 yards of the enemy's works and opened on them with a rapid and telling fire. Whilst the battery was thus engaged I moved up the balance of the brigade and formed it, the Seventy-second Ohio as skirmishers, the Ninety-fifth Ohio and Tenth Minnesota in the front line, and One hundred and fourteenth Illinois and Ninety-third Indiana in the rear, and made preparations to charge. The Second Brigade formed to my left and one or two regiments of Hatch's division of cavalry on my right. Upon an order from the general commanding division, we advanced upon the works and carried both quickly, capturing the 6 guns, 300 or 400 prisoners, and a lot of small-arms. In this charge I regret to state that the gallant Col. D.C. Thomas, Ninety-third Indiana Infantry, was severely wounded, and a number of brave men were killed and wounded. The cavalry regiments on my right deserve credit for the dashing part they took in assaulting and capturing these works. After collecting prisoners and guns and placing them in charge of the Seventy-second Ohio to be conveyed to Nashville, my command moved on the Hillsborough pike and took a position on its east side, in the rear of the Second Brigade, where we camped for the night. Two cannon, 2 caissons, 1 army wagon filled with arms and accouterments, 7 commissioned officers, and 148 enlisted men were secured and turned over by my command as the fruits of this day's work.

Early on the morning of the 16th I moved out and occupied the temporary works constructed during the night by the Second Brigade, which had already moved forward and become engaged with the enemy. Soon afterward an order to advance and form in two lines on the right of the Second Brigade was received and executed; my first line throwing out skirmishers, who advanced to within a short distance of the enemy's works, which could be plainly seen from a hill in front of a division of the Twenty-third Army Corps, commanded by General Couch, and upon which my battery went into position and did good execution in silencing those batteries of the enemy within range and in covering with a rapid fire an assault made later in the day by my brigade. Throughout the fore part of the day we remained in line, using artillery freely, and occasionally advancing the skirmish line, which invariably met with stubborn resistance. Toward noon I commenced digging a rifle-pit to protect my first line from the enemy's fire and also to enable it more securely to hold the ground in case of an assault, preparations for which, on the part of the enemy, I thought could be seen. In front of Couch's division, Twenty-third Army Corps, there was a very steep hill, over the crown of which the enemy's main line extended, and which formed the key point to his works, in front of our division. This hill once carried and securely held, these works, as far as we could see to our left, became untenable, and would necessarily have to be abandoned. Being a position of so much importance it was, of course, guarded by a strong body of troops, besides being so steep, it was supposed no assaulting party could live to reach the summit. We waited long hours for the division of the Twenty-third Army Corps in front of this hill to carry it, intending to advance at the same time and carry the works at its base and our left. At length General McArthur, tired with the long delay and fearful the day would pass without making any serious impression upon the enemy's lines, directed me to withdraw my brigade and “take that hill.” This was about 2 o'clock in the afternoon. I immediately withdrew my skirmishers, retired the regiments, and moved them by the right flank to a point opposite the hill to be carried; forming in two lines outside of the works occupied by and in front of Couch's division; supplied empty cartridge boxes, and posted my battery so as to command the enemy's position. The front line consisted of the following regiments, named in their order from right to left: One hundred and fourteenth Illinois Infantry, Captain Johnson commanding; Ninety-third Indiana Infantry, Captain Hubbard commanding; Tenth Minnesota Infantry, Lieut. Col. S. P. Jennison commanding; the second line of the Seventy-second Ohio Infantry, Lieut. Col. C. G. Eaton commanding, and the Ninety-fifth Ohio, Lieut. Col. Jefferson Brumback commanding. After the troops were ready the assault was delayed some time, in consequence of a failure on the part of the ordnance department to supply the battery with ammunition. Ten rounds for each gun were finally procured from Captain Reed, of the Second Iowa Battery, and about 3.30 o'clock I ordered Lieutenant McClaury, commanding Cogswell's Independent Battery, to open on the hill, and under cover of this fire advanced to the assault. Regimental commanders had been instructed to move out silently, with fixed bayonets, and, if possible, gain the enemy's works before delivering their fire. A strong skirmish line had been thrown forward, with orders to advance, firing as soon as the brigade moved. Capt. James Fernald, of my staff, was placed in charge of the skirmishers, and, as ever, performed his duty with the utmost daring and gallantry. Quickly and steadily the brigade moved down one hill and up the other to within a few feet of the enemy's parapet, where we received a volley, which on the right went over our heads, but on the left punished the Tenth Minnesota severely. Nothing daunted, this gallant regiment, together with the others composing the front line, cleared the enemy's works with a bound. The two regiments in the second line were inside almost as quickly, having pushed forward with the highest spirit and determination.

Brigadier-General Smith, 84 field, staff, and line officers, and 1,533 enlisted men were captured in this charge, together with 4 battle-flags, 8 cannon, 8 caissons, a large number of small-arms and accouterments. My loss, although not heavy considering the work performed, embraces many gallant officers and soldiers. It mainly fell upon the Tenth Minnesota Infantry, which was exposed to a flanking fire. Two field officers, 6 line officers, wounded, and some 60 enlisted men killed and wounded in this charge alone, attest the fiery ordeal through which the regiment passed; and the fact that it reached the rebel works in its front as quickly as the regiments on its right, which were less exposed, is ample evidence of the courage and daring of both officers and men. Lieutenant-Colonel Jennison, the commanding officer, was conspicuous for his high daring, and set a noble example to his officers and men. He fell severely wounded on the enemy's works, and his loss, even if but temporary, will be severely felt by his regiment. Lieutenant-Colonels Brumback and Eaton, Captains Johnson and Hubbard, commanding regiments, acquitted themselves on this occasion, as they always do, with distinguished gallantry, setting their respective commands examples which must always insure success. In fact, all officers and men of this brigade engaged on the 15th and 16th instant displayed an eager desire to engage the enemy, and a courage tempered with a high resolve rarely, if ever, surpassed. To Lieutenant McClaury, his officers and men, I am under particular obligations for their bravery and efficiency in working their battery. Although but recently attached, they have already won the esteem and admiration of the entire command.

The following is a summary of the prisoners of war, guns, colors, &c., captured and turned over by my brigade in the recent engagements:

General officers
1
Cannon
10
Field, staff, and line officers
91
Caissons
10
Enlisted men
1,681
Wagons
1

____
Small-arms (estimated)
2,500
Total
1,773
Accouterments (estimated)..sets
2,500

To the officers of my staff — Capt. James Fernald, Seventy-second Ohio Infantry, brigade picket officer; Lieut. O. H. Abel, One hundred and fourteenth Illinois Infantry, acting assistant adjutant-general; Lieut. Josiah Barber, Ninety-fifth Ohio Infantry, acting aide-de-camp, and Lieut. John C. Chittenden, Ninety-fifth Ohio Infantry, acting assistant quartermaster — I am under renewed obligations for that devotion to duty and gallantry under fire which has always characterized them. They have my thanks and deserve the gratitude of the country for their intelligent discharge of every trust, however trying or dangerous. To Lieut. A. L. Whiteside, regimental quartermaster, Ninety-third Indiana Infantry, I tender my thanks for valuable services rendered on both days as volunteer aide-de-camp.

I have the honor to forward herewith a list of the killed and wounded, from which it will be seen that the entire loss in this brigade was as follows: Commissioned officers — wounded, 10. Enlisted men — killed, 22; wounded, 86. Total, 118.

I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. L. McMILLEN,   
Colonel Ninety-fifth Ohio Infantry, Commanding.
Capt. W. H. F. RANDALL,
Asst. Adjt. Gen., First Div., Detach. Army of the Tennessee.

SOURCE: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volume 45, Part 1 (Serial No. 93), p. 440-3

Official Reports of the Campaign in North Alabama and Middle Tennessee, November 14, 1864 — January 23, 1865: No. 144. Report of Brig. Gen. John McArthur, U. S. Army, commanding First Division, of operations December 15-16, 1864.

144.

Report of Brig. Gen. John McArthur, U. S. Army, commanding First Division,
of operations December 15-16, 1864.

HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, DETACH. ARMY OF THE TENN.,                       
Near Pulaski, Tenn., December 28, 1864.

MAJOR: I have the honor to forward the following report of the part taken by my division during the battles of the 15th and 16th instant in front of Nashville, Tenn.:

Pursuant to orders from the major-general commanding, I moved on the morning of the 15th, at 7 a.m. the First Brigade, Col. W. L. McMillen commanding, consisting of the Seventy-second and Ninety-fifth Ohio, One hundred and fourteenth Illinois, Ninety-third Indiana, and Tenth. Minnesota Infantry Regiments, and Cogswell's Independent Illinois Battery; also the Second Brigade, Col. L. F. Hubbard commanding, composed of the Eleventh Missouri, Eighth Wisconsin, Fifth and Ninth Minnesota Infantry, and Second Iowa Battery, out from the intrenchments around Nashville on the Charlotte road; also the Third Brigade, Col. S. G. Hill commanding, consisting of the Twelfth and Thirty-fifth Iowa, Thirty-third Missouri, and Seventh Minnesota Regiments, and Company I, Second Missouri Artillery, out on the Hardin road; the Third with orders to take position on the right of the Second Division, and the First and Second to swing to the left, and connecting with the Third, so as to complete the line. The two brigades on the Charlotte road waited two hours for the cavalry to take the advance, according to the instructions received the evening previous; but no move taking place on their part, and being informed that the line was awaiting my arrival, I passed through the cavalry line, deploying to the left of the road, right resting on same, until they reached Richland Creek, two miles and a half, encountering the enemy's battery and skirmishers, which were silenced by Cogswell's battery, giving the cavalry an opportunity of advancing. Finding that they were too far advanced, and not connecting with the main line, I moved them by the left flank obliquely to the rear, connecting with the Third Brigade, as designated, the whole line moving forward. My division being on the flank, the whole swinging on our left as a pivot, our march was necessarily long and tiresome.

After crossing the Hardin road the First Brigade encountered the first redoubt of four guns on the enemy's extreme left. Moving up the Second Brigade to its support, they were immediately formed for assault, both batteries taking position about 300 yards distant. After a brisk fire the fort was silenced and the infantry dashed forward. Simultaneous with their advance the cavalry of General Hatch's division charged, and, from their advantageous position, entered the works with my skirmishers and claimed the guns as their capture, which I conceded to them, their gallantry on that occasion being conspicuous, although the fort had been rendered untenable by the fire from my batteries. I then ordered the First Brigade to charge the second hill to the rear of the fort just taken, which they gallantly did, capturing two guns and caissons and a great many prisoners. In this they were supported by the Second Brigade, their skirmishers entering simultaneously with the First Brigade. While this was going on the Third Brigade charged the redoubt commanding the Hillsborough road, and carried it in gallant style; but pressing on in connection with the Second Division, the guns, three in number, were taken into possession by the Fourth Corps, together with a number of prisoners, which might have been properly credited had not Col. S. G. Hill, commanding brigade, been unfortunately killed in the charge. For further evidence of this I refer to Brigadier-General Garrard, commanding Second Division. Immediately following this General Couch's division, which had come into position by moving around my right and rear, charged the fourth position, a strong hill to our left. Simultaneous with the charge I ordered Col. L. F. Hubbard, commanding Second Brigade, to move forward on the left of Couch's division, sweeping around the base of the hill, thereby flanking the enemy's position and rendering the charge of General Couch an easier one. This was a bold and successful movement on the part of Col. L. F. Hubbard's command, and reflects great credit on him in handling his troops so successfully, for he encountered the enemy for a short time in front of him and on his flank, yet did not falter. Our line was then formed for the night and fortified between the Hillsborough and Granny White roads, nearly parallel with the same, thus ending the first day's battle.

On the morning of the 16th, at 8 a.m., I moved the division forward by wheeling to the right on the Twenty-third Corps, forming at right angles to the position held the night previous, with the Granny White road running through between the Second and Third Brigades, and moved up at 9 a.m. to within charging distance of the enemy's main line of works, but finding no dispositions made by the corps on my right to co-operate with me, I ordered the command to construct rifle-pits to protect them from the infantry fire of the enemy's main line, my batteries in the meantime being used with good effect on their works. Continuing in this position until 3 p.m., when, again consulting with Major-General Couch, commanding division on my right, and being informed that he had no orders to advance, and fearing that if delayed until next day the night would be employed by the enemy to our disadvantage, I determined to attack, sending word to this effect to the major-general commanding corps, and no contrary orders being received I prepared for the assault. In order to do so successfully, it was necessary that the hill on the enemy's extreme left and immediately in front of the Twenty-third Corps should be taken first. I ordered the First Brigade, Col. W. L. McMillen commanding, to move by the right flank and take position in front of and to take the hill, Major-General Couch sending forward a brigade to occupy and hold the intrenchments vacated by Col. W. L. McMillen, in case of an emergency, the Second and Third Brigades having orders to charge as soon as the First had advanced half-way up the hill, which was the salient point of the position. The First Brigade, with fixed bayonets, without a cheer or firing a shot, but with firm resolve and without doubting their success, commenced the difficult ascent, and without a halt, although exposed to a murderous fire, which none but the bravest troops could withstand, planted their colors on the very apex of the hill. At the appointed time the Second and Third Brigades — the Third commanded by Col. W. R. Marshall, Seventh Minnesota Infantry — moved forward on the enemy's works. Their path lay across a cornfield, traversed by stone walls and ditches, which, together with the softness of the ground, exposed as they were to a direct fire in front, and enfiladed by batteries on the flanks, for a time held with intense interest the most experienced officers who beheld it; but onward was their motto, and their banners were planted on works defended by the choicest troops of the rebel army, calling forth the remark of the rebel officers that powder and lead were inadequate to resist such a charge. Onward still the division pressed, gathering in prisoners by the hundred and guns by batteries (a list of which is appended) until the hills in rear of the enemy's lines were secured, where the line was formed for the night, and attention turned to the many brave officers and men who had so gloriously maintained their country's honor and sealed it with their blood.

In connection with this I wish to mention the services of the agents of the Christian Commission: conspicuous among which were Mr. Carter, of Wisconsin, and others whose names I failed to obtain, who, regardless of personal danger, were everywhere present, ministering to the wounded. A cause sustained by such and similar agencies cannot fail.

Before closing the report I beg to bear testimony to the gallantry and heroic fortitude displayed by every officer and soldier of my command; their conduct throughout was par excellence.

In addition to the report already forwarded of officers recommended for promotion I would call your attention to the reports of brigade commanders, transmitted herewith, for the names of those officers recommended by them for special mention for gallantry and good conduct. My thanks are also due in an especial manner to the officers and men of the artillery of my division, serving their guns in such a manner as to call forth my highest admiration. I am also greatly indebted to the following members of my staff for valuable services throughout: Capt. William H. F. Randall, assistant adjutant-general; Capts. Duncan MacLean and John W. Gregg, aides-de-camp; Dr. S. W. Huff, surgeon-in-chief, whose duties were arduous, but not beyond his capabilities; Capt. S. Carkener, Thirty-third Missouri Volunteers, judge-advocate and acting aide; Capt. E. R. Applegate, Eleventh Missouri Volunteers, ordnance officer; Capt. Joseph Mayer, Thirty-fifth Iowa Volunteers, temporarily on duty as aide; Lieut. P. Meagher, Thirteenth U.S. Infantry, mustering officer and acting aide; Lieut. Samuel A. L. Law, acting assistant quartermaster; Capt. J. A. Leonard, commissary of subsistence, for efficiency in their respective duties; Capt. J.P. Houston, acting assistant inspector-general, who was unfortunately wounded while charging with the skirmishers the broken ranks of the enemy. He is a valuable officer. I deeply regret his temporary loss. To all of whom my thanks are due.

In addition to the above report I wish to mention the First Brigade, Third Division, Colonel Ward, Fourteenth Wisconsin Infantry, commanding, consisting of the Fourteenth and Thirty-third Wisconsin and Eighty-first Illinois Infantry, for their promptness in moving forward to support my left on the first day's battle and securing many prisoners.

The following is the list of captures, which needs no comment: Prisoners of wary including Brigadier-Generals Smith and Jackson, 4,273; battle-flags, 13; guns with caissons, 24; small-arms, estimated at 4,500; besides several wagons and horses. There were expended during both days' fighting, 4,681 rounds artillery ammunition; 84,000 rounds of musketry ammunition.

My total casualties, as per report forwarded, are as follows: Killed, 68; wounded, 506, and 1 missing; making a total of killed, wounded, and missing, 575.*

All of which is respectfully submitted.

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. McARTHUR,         
Brigadier-General, Commanding.

P. S. — I wish particularly to mention in connection with this report the gallant conduct of Col. W. R. Marshall, Seventh Minnesota Infantry Volunteers, commanding Third Brigade, called to take command during the first day's battle and continuing throughout. His admirable management and example stamp him as an officer of rare merit.

J. McARTHUR,         
Brigadier-General.
Maj. J. HOUGH,
Assistant Adjutant-General, Detachment Army of the Tennessee.
_______________

* But see revised table, p. 101

SOURCE: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volume 45, Part 1 (Serial No. 93), p. 437-40

Saturday, April 13, 2019

Official Reports of the Campaign in North Alabama and Middle Tennessee, November 14, 1864 — January 23, 1865: No. 143. Report of Maj. Gen. Andrew J. Smith, U. S. Army, commanding Detachment Army of the Tennessee, of operations November 30, 1864-January 10, 1865.

No. 143.

Report of Maj. Gen. Andrew J. Smith, U. S. Army, commanding Detachment Army of the Tennessee, of operations November 30, 1864-January 10, 1865.

HEADQUARTERS DETACHMENT ARMY OF THE TENNESSEE,    
Eastport, Miss., January 10, 1865.

GENERAL: I have the honor to report the operations of my command from the date of their arrival at Nashville, Tenn., pursuant to orders from Maj. Gen. W. T. Sherman, commanding Military Division of the Mississippi, November 30, 1864, to the present date.

Debarked the First and Third Divisions on the 30th and the Second Division on the 1st of December. On the 1st, by your direction, the command was placed in line of battle for defense of the city of Nashville, as follows: The right resting on the Cumberland River, about three miles from the city in a direct line, and the left resting on the Hillsborough pike, about two miles and a half in a direct line from the city, forming a line of three miles from right to left. Breast-works strong enough to protect the men from either artillery or musketry were immediately constructed by the troops along the whole line. The command not being sufficiently large to form a continuous front line and still have any troops for a reserve, with your consent, one brigade was withdrawn from the works on the left and placed in rear of the left center, immediately on the right of the Hardin pike, to be used as circumstances might require, their works on the left being occupied by a division of the Fourth Corps, which had then arrived. The enemy made his appearance on the evening of the 2d and took position beyond artillery range in my front, which respectful distance was retained throughout the siege, with the exception of an occasional picket-post or reconnoitering party. Until the 14th of December the troops were employed in strengthening the works and some slight skirmishing. A spirited dash made by sixty of our cavalry, under command of Lieutenant-Colonel Blackburn, of a Tennessee regiment, in which some few prisoners were captured from the enemy, and desultory artillery firing at long range at small parties of the enemy, were all that occurred in my front. In the meantime transportation was obtained, ammunition and commissary stores loaded, and everything placed in readiness to move at an hour's notice.

On the night of the 14th orders were received to move outside the works early the next morning and form on or near the Hardin pike, the left connecting with the right of the Fourth Corps, the cavalry passing behind and forming on my right, the whole to wheel to the left, with the Fourth Corps as a pivot, and make a vigorous assault upon the enemy's left. This movement was commenced by my command at 6 a.m. on the 15th. The Second Division, Brig. Gen. K. Garrard commanding, moved out on the Hardin pike, and then moving by the left flank until he connected with the Fourth Corps, forming my left. The First Division, Brig. Gen. J. McArthur commanding, moving out next by the Hardin and Charlotte pike, formed on the right of the Second Division. The Third Division, Col. J. B. Moore, Thirty-third Wisconsin Infantry Volunteers, commanding, moving out by the Hardin pike, formed in rear of the center to act as a reserve to either flank.

The First and Second Brigades of General McArthur, which moved out by the Charlotte pike, owing to the roads diverging widely, and the stubborn resistance of the enemy's skirmishers, he having to silence one battery, did not connect with the main line until nearly 8.30. The cavalry then passed to our right and the movement began about 10 a.m., our orders being to touch to the left and guide right. Throwing out a strong skirmish line they became almost immediately engaged with the enemy's skirmishers, driving them back easily, and the line advancing and wheeling gradually, assumed a position almost parallel with the Hardin pike. Pressing forward we came to the first works of the enemy, about half a mile south of the Hardin pike, and one mile and a half from the main line of works around Nashville — a small earthwork on the top of a hill, in which were four 12-pounder brass guns, the fort covered by another on the hill about 400 yards west, in which were two 12-pounder brass guns. Four batteries opened on the first fort, soon silencing their guns, and General McArthur directed to take two brigades and carry the works by assault. Placing the First Brigade, Col. W. L. McMillen, in advance, supported by the Second, Col. L. F. Hubbard commanding, the work was carried at a run. The cavalry on our right, at the same time charging directly under the guns of the rear fort on the hill, entered the first fort simultaneously with our skirmishers. The guns in the fort were all captured and about 150 prisoners. The cavalry claimed the guns as their capture, and more for their gallant charge than because they were entitled to the pieces, they were conceded to them. The First and Second Brigades of McArthur's division, obliquing to the right without stopping, carried the second fort, capturing the two guns and about 200 prisoners, the First Brigade moving directly to the top of the hill, and the Second flanking it on the left. During the assault upon these two forts the Twenty-third Corps passed in my rear by the flank to my right, and by the time the forts were taken had formed on my right. Advancing Colonel Ward's brigade, of the Third Division, to fill the gap caused by the oblique movement of Colonels McMillen's and Hubbard's brigades, in the charge of the second fort upon the hill, the line again advanced, skirmishing heavily along its whole extent. A small earth-work containing two guns on a hill in front of Colonel Hill's (Third) brigade, of McArthur's division, was carried by that brigade in gallant style, capturing the guns and many prisoners, the skirmishers from the Second Division entering at the same time from the east. On entering this work Col. S. G. Hill, Thirty-fifth Iowa Infantry, commanding Third Brigade, First Division, was unfortunately struck in the forehead by a musket-ball and died almost instantly. In consequence, the guns and prisoners were not properly taken care of and turned over, but were taken possession of by other troops, and the brigade did not get the credit which it justly deserves. At the same time Col. E. H. Wolfe's (Third) brigade, of the Second Division, crossed the Hillsborough pike and carried the earthworks on the hill immediately to the left of that pike, capturing two guns in the fort and one more a short distance from it, which the enemy were endeavoring to take away.

At the time these last two assaults were made, which were almost perpendicular to the Hillsborough pike, the Fourth Corps charged, parallel with the pike, the works in their front, thereby crowding out the First and Second Brigades of the Second Division, the enemy's works at that point making nearly a right angle with the salient angle in front of the right of the Fourth Corps and the left of my command. I therefore passed the First and Second Brigades, Second Division, by the right flank, to the right and rear of Third Brigade, same division, and directed them to form on the right of that brigade. The Fourth Corps also took possession of the guns passed over by Colonel Wolfe. In the meantime the First Division and the brigade of the Third, advancing on the right, drove the enemy across the Hillsborough pike, dislodging them from the stone walls on either side, capturing 2 pieces of artillery, a large number of prisoners, and about 1,000 muskets. Night coming on, the troops bivouacked in line of battle. During the night, a request coming from General Schofield, commanding Twenty-third Corps, for re-enforcements, I sent him the Third Division, Col. J. B. Moore commanding, just before daylight.

On the morning of the 16th, advancing my lines in the same order as on the previous day, the First on the right and the Second Division on the left, it was discovered that the enemy had taken position at the base of a chain of hills called the Brentwood Hills, with a front nearly perpendicular to our line, and had strongly intrenched themselves by throwing up breast-works and massing artillery in every available position. Changing my front by a half wheel by brigades, the command moved slowly in echelon from the right, so as not to break connection with the Fourth Corps, and took a position directly in front of the enemy at a distance of about 600 yards, my right resting at the base of a hill on the top of which was the enemy's left, and my line, being the whole front of the two divisions, extending about one mile. The enemy opening a heavy artillery fire upon my brigade as they went into position, all the batteries of the First and Second Divisions, six in number, were brought into action at a distance of about 800 yards, and after a fierce cannonading of about two hours succeeded in quieting the enemy's guns in our front. The Twenty-third Corps was on my right in the intrenchments thrown up by them the night before, and nearly at right angles with my present line. Expecting that corps to take the initiative, as they were on the flank of the enemy, I held the command in its present position, keeping up a slow artillery fire at their lines without eliciting any reply. About 1 o'clock I received a request from General Schofield, and a few minutes later an order from you, to send another division to his assistance, he having retained the one sent at daylight that morning. Not having any reserve, and my whole line being immediately in front of the enemy and liable to be attacked and broken at any point, where even a brigade should be withdrawn, I therefore sent a staff officer to him to state the condition of my command and ascertain if he could not get along without the division. The officer reported to me that General Schofield's line was not engaged, and upon the condition being reported to him, that he said he did not need the additional force, consequently it was not sent.

About 3 p.m. General McArthur sent word that he could carry the hill on his right by assault. Major-General Thomas being present, the matter was referred to him, and I was requested to delay the movement until he could hear from General Schofield, to whom he had sent. General McArthur, not receiving any reply, and fearing that if the attack should be longer delayed the enemy would use the night to strengthen his works, directed the First Brigade, Col. W. L. McMillen, Ninety-fifth Ohio Infantry, commanding, to storm the hill, on which was the left of the enemy's line, and the Second and Third Brigades of the division to attack in front when the First should be half-way up the hill. Accordingly, Colonel McMillen formed his brigade in two lines, with the One hundred and fourteenth Illinois Infantry, Ninety-third Indiana Infantry, and Tenth Minnesota Infantry in the first, and the Seventy-second Ohio and Ninety-fifth Ohio in the second line, and gave his men orders not to cheer or fire a shot until the works should be gained. Throwing out a strong party of skirmishers, under a rapid fire from them and his artillery, he commenced the ascent. He had no sooner fully commenced his movement than the Second Brigade, Col. D. F. Hubbard commanding, eager in emulation, also took up the attack, immediately followed the Third Brigade, and, lastly, the Second Division. The enemy opened with a fierce storm of shell, canister, and musketry, sadly decimating the ranks of many regiments, but nothing save annihilation could stop the onward progress of that line. Sweeping forward, the right of the line up the hill and the left through mud and over walls, they gained the enemy's works, calling forth the remark from one of their general officers that “powder and lead were inadequate to resist such a charge.” The enemy were whipped, broken, and demoralized. Prisoners were taken by the regiment and artillery by batteries. The pursuit was continued until dark, when the troops bivouacked in line.

In this one charge the two divisions captured 27 pieces of artillery complete, over 4,000 prisoners, among whom were Maj. Gen. Edward Johnson and Brigadier-Generals Jackson and Smith, 12 stand of colors, General Johnson's headquarters wagons, and many ammunition and baggage wagons. I am not able to give you the exact number, as we left the next morning in pursuit, without collecting them, leaving them to be taken care of by the reserve troops in Nashville. The Second Division claims that they captured four more guns on the left, which were afterward taken possession of by the Fourth Corps, but as they were on the Fourth Corps line, and they were undoubtedly assisted by that corps in their capture, I am not disposed to question their right to them. I only hope that there may always be the same ardent desire to capture from a disloyal enemy his means and munitions of war; it is certainly a laudable rivalry. The three guns, however, taken by Colonel Wolfe on the 15th properly belong to and should be credited to him. The sum total of the captures on both days is: 36 pieces of artillery; 5,123 prisoners, among whom were Maj. Gen. Edward Johnson and Brigadier-Generals Jackson and Smith; about 6,000 stand of small-arms; 16 battle-flags; and about 30 wagons of various kinds.

Instances of individual merit were numerous. Colonel McMillen deserves to be specially mentioned for his conduct of the charge of the second day. Col. L. F. Hubbard, Fifth Minnesota, commanding' Second Brigade, First Division, had three horses shot under him on the 16th. Going into action with a total of 1,421 muskets in his brigade, he captured over 2,000 prisoners, 9 pieces of artillery, and 7 stand of colors, and the casualties in his brigade number 315.

For details and particulars I refer you to the reports of division and brigade commanders, herewith inclosed. Inclosed, also, is a complete list of the casualties.*

The prisoners and artillery were all sent back to Nashville to be turned over to the proper officers there. The stands of colors are in possession of the officers and men who captured them, which I will send to you with a list of the names.

On the 17th, in compliance with orders, my command, the Third Division having joined that morning, moved out on the Granny White pike about four miles, and thence south to the Franklin pike, with orders to fall in the rear of the Fourth Corps. From thence we marched, via Franklin, Columbia, Pulaski, Lawrenceburg, and Waynesborough, to Clifton, and from thence on transports to this place, without anything of importance occurring.

My division commanders deserve much credit for the able and soldierly manner with which they managed their commands and their ready and hearty co-operation in every respect. The Third Division, Col. J. B. Moore commanding, only needed as favorable an opportunity to have done equally as well as any. His troops that day upon the field were all tried soldiers, who have fought many a battle with credit and honor to themselves.

I have exceedingly to regret the loss of one gallant brigade commander, Col. S. G. Hill, Thirty-fifth Iowa Infantry, who was killed in the charge on the 15th. Long with the command, he has endeared himself to every member of it; brave and courteous, the service has lost a gallant officer and society a gentleman by his untimely death.

The officers of my staff, each and all, deserve special credit for their personal services, both on the field and in their respective departments. They rendered invaluable aid on the field by their activity and discrimination and their acute perception of the weak points and the proper time and moment for executing the different movements with which they were charged.

In the supply department everything moved with a prompt energy and reliability that gave an additional impulse forward to each officer and man.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
A. J. SMITH, 
Major-General.
Brig. Gen. W. D. WHIPPLE,
Chief of Staff, Department of the Cumberland.
_______________

* Embodied in table, pp. 100-102.

SOURCE: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volume 45, Part 1 (Serial No. 93), p. 432-7

Official Reports of the Campaign in North Alabama and Middle Tennessee, November 14, 1864 — January 23, 1865: No. 142. Report of Capt. Giles J. Cockerill, Battery D, First Ohio Light Artillery, of operations November 22-December 1, 1864.

No. 142.

Report of Capt. Giles J. Cockerill, Battery D, First Ohio Light Artillery,
of operations November 22-December 1, 1864.

HDQRS. BATTERY D,.FIRST OHIO LIGHT ARTILLERY,      
Near Columbia, Tenn., December 30, 1864.

CAPTAIN: I have the honor to submit the following report of operations of the batteries of Third Division, Twenty-third Army Corps, from the 22d day of November, 1864, on which day they moved from Pulaski, Tenn., to the 1st day of December, 1864, at which time they arrived at Nashville, Tenn.:

Late in the day, November 21, 1864, I received orders to have the batteries of the division in readiness to move early the following day, 22d instant. In compliance, I notified the commanding officers of the batteries — Fifteenth and Twenty-third Indiana and Battery D, First Ohio Light Artillery — of the division of the import of the order. Agreeably to your order, the batteries marched on the 22d instant, taking the road leading to Lynnville, Tenn.; reached Lynnville about 1 p.m.; went into camp short distance out from the town. Remained here until 2 p.m. of the day following, when I received orders to prepare to move at once. This order was immediately transmitted to Captain Harvey and Lieutenant Wilber, commanding, respectively, the Fifteenth and Twenty-third Indiana Batteries, and shortly thereafter the batteries were in line of march in direction of Columbia, Tenn., marching until 7 p.m., and when distant about six miles from Columbia, where they halted for the night. 3 a.m. the day following, 23d instant, I received orders to have the batteries in readiness to move immediately. This order I at once transmitted to the battery commanders of the division, and soon thereafter they were on the road marching in direction of Columbia, Tenn. When near Columbia I left the Lynnville and Columbia pike and crossed to the Mount Pleasant pike, which I reached about 8 a.m., and just as the advance of the enemy's cavalry was nearing town (Columbia), driving before them our own cavalry. I at once placed one section of Battery D, under Lieutenant Vincent, on the left of and near the pike, near the residence of Mrs. Wilson, and 600 or 700 yards in advance of the main line, and in rear of this section, on the main line, I stationed the Twenty-third Indiana Battery. Just to the right of the pike, and on the same line with the Twenty-third Indiana Battery, I stationed the other section of Battery D, First Ohio Volunteer Artillery, under Lieutenant Reed, and still farther to the right I placed the Fifteenth Indiana Battery, on the main line. These positions they maintained until the night of the 25th instant, when, in obedience to orders, I withdrew them to the opposite side of the river (Duck) and placed them in park. While in position on south side of the river there were expended on the 25th instant a total of 198 rounds shell — 84 by Fifteenth Indiana Battery and 114 rounds by Battery D, First Ohio Volunteer Light Artillery. During the 26th and 27th of November the batteries remained in park. On the morning of the 28th instant the batteries were again placed in positions which were, in my opinion, well calculated to dispute the crossing of the river by the enemy — the Twenty-third and one section of the Fifteenth Indiana Batteries in such positions as to command the ferry or ford; the other section of Fifteenth Indiana Battery farther to the right and near the residence of Mrs. Brown; Battery D, First Ohio Volunteer Light Artillery, to their left, on the line with Colonel Casement's brigade, commanding other crossing of the river. During the engagements of the 29th instant one section of Battery D, First Ohio Volunteer Light Artillery, under Lieutenant Reed, was moved to different parts of the line and used with good effect at different times, silencing the guns on the enemy's extreme left. In these positions there were expended on the 28th and 29th instant a total of 834 rounds shell, 40 rounds canister, and 5 rounds case-shot — by Fifteenth Indiana Battery, 333 rounds shell and 40 rounds canister; by Twenty-third Indiana Battery, 297 rounds shell; and by Battery D, First Ohio Volunteer Light Artillery, 204 rounds shell and 5 rounds case-shot. In obedience to orders the batteries were withdrawn early in the night of 29th instant, and immediately took up line of march on Columbia and Franklin pike, reaching Franklin 7 a.m. 30th instant. Crossed the river Big Harpeth, and one battery (Battery D, First Ohio Volunteer Light Artillery) was placed in Fort Granger, from which position it expended 160 rounds shell and 3 rounds case-shot. The Fifteenth and Twenty-third Indiana Batteries were placed in park after crossing the river, where they remained during the day. About 2 a.m. December 1 moved out, in obedience to orders, in direction of Nashville, where I arrived 12 m. December 1, 1864.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
G. J. COCKERILL,  
Capt. and Chief of Arty., Third Div., Twenty-third Army Corps.
 Capt. THEO. Cox,
Assistant Adjutant-General, Third Div., 23d Army Corps.

SOURCE: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volume 45, Part 1 (Serial No. 93), p. 431-2

Friday, April 12, 2019

Official Reports of the Campaign in North Alabama and Middle Tennessee, November 14, 1864 — January 23, 1865: No. 141. Reports of Col. Israel N. Stiles, Sixty-third Indiana Infantry, commanding Third Brigade, of operations November 30 and December 15-16, 1864.

No. 141.

Reports of Col. Israel N. Stiles, Sixty-third Indiana Infantry, commanding Third Brigade,
of operations November 30 and December 15-16, 1864.

HEADQUARTERS SIXTY-THIRD INDIANA VOLUNTEERS,
Nashville, Tenn., December 5, 1864.

SIR: In compliance with instructions received from Brigadier-General Cox, I have the honor to submit herewith a report of the operations of the Third Brigade, Third Division, Twenty-third Army Corps, at Franklin, Tenn., on the 30th of November, the brigade being temporarily under my command on that day, owing to the illness of Col. Thomas J. Henderson, the brigade commander.

By direction of General Cox I placed the command in position early on the morning of the 30th, on the left of the Second Brigade, and with the left resting on the river and in the following order: One hundred and twentieth Indiana Infantry, Sixty-third Indiana Infantry, One hundred and twenty-eighth Indiana Infantry, with the One hundred and twelfth Illinois Infantry a short distance to the rear in reserve. Substantial works were at once thrown up, and such portions of our front as were not already obstructed by a well-grown and almost impenetrable hedge were covered with a strong abatis made of the hedges which ran at right angles with the works. At about 4 p.m. the enemy commenced his advance on our front in three lines of battle, preceded by a strong line of skirmishers. When within shell range, Battery M, Fourth Regulars, stationed on the left and rear of the brigade, opened upon the advancing lines. The front line of the enemy soon came within range of our muskets and was repulsed. A portion of their second line succeeded in reaching that part of the works held by the One hundred and twenty-eighth Indiana, and planted their colors upon them. The color-bearer was killed, and the flag fell upon the outside. A number of the enemy succeeded in climbing over the works and were taken prisoners. This charge of the enemy was soon repulsed, and he made no further serious efforts to drive us from our position. The battery I have already mentioned, together with a battery in the fort across the river, kept up a continuous firing upon our front till after dark, which, I have no doubt, did much to check any further attempt of the enemy to advance upon us. In the meantime the One hundred and twentieth Indiana on the left was subjected to a terrific enfilading fire, both from the enemy's artillery and infantry. The regiment and its commander, Colonel Prather, in my opinion, deserve great praise for the heroic manner with which they held their position, the loss of which might have resulted in a defeat to our army. It is proper also that I should mention the stubborn and soldierly conduct of Lieutenant Colonel Packard, One hundred and twenty-eighth Indiana, and his command, in resisting the enemy after he had reached their works. The One hundred and twelfth Illinois, Lieutenant-Colonel Bond commanding, though in reserve, was exposed to a considerable fire during the engagement, and near nightfall was ordered by General Cox to re-enforce some portion of the Second Division.

The conduct of Lieutenant-Colonel Morris, commanding Sixty-third Indiana Volunteers, as well as that of the officers generally, was praiseworthy, and that of the men was made more efficient by the aid and presence of Colonel Henderson, the brigade commander, who, though suffering from illness, could not withstand the desire to be present where his command was engaged, and who was along the lines during the engagement, and whose opportunities of witnessing their good conduct were equal to my own.

By direction of General Cox I withdrew the brigade, except the One hundred and twelfth Illinois, across the river at midnight.

I learn that a report of the casualties and the number of prisoners taken has already been forwarded to General Cox.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
I. N. STILES,
Colonel Sixty-third Indiana Volunteer Infantry.         
 Lieutenant STEARNS,
Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.
_______________

HDQRS. THIRD BRIG., THIRD DIV., 23D ARMY CORPS,     
Spring Hill, Tenn., December 22, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of this command in the battles of the 15th and 16th instant, at Nashville, Tenn.:

On the morning of the 15th I moved the brigade from its position near Fort Negley to the right, in the rear and in support of a part of the Fourth Corps, on the Hillsborough pike. Near noon I marched farther to the right, following the First Brigade, and supporting the Sixteenth Corps and a portion of the cavalry. At night I took position on a high hill on the extreme right of the infantry, and occupied the adjoining heights by a strong force of skirmishers. Some time in the afternoon of the next day the cavalry on our right advanced, and the skirmishers of my command were ordered forward with them. About this time a successful charge was made by the infantry on my left, and the enemy in my front was driven from his position. At this time I received an order from General Cox to move two regiments forward, form on the left of the cavalry, and advance with it. I found, in attempting to comply with this order, that the cavalry, meeting with little or no resistance, was moving so rapidly that it was impossible for me to operate with it. Soon after I received orders to bivouac for the night.

My only loss was that of three enlisted men wounded.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
I. N. STILES,
Colonel, Commanding Brigade.        
Capt. THEO. Cox,
Assistant Adjutant-General.

SOURCE: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volume 45, Part 1 (Serial No. 93), p. 429-31

8th Indiana Independent Battery Light Artillery

Organized at Indianapolis, Ind., and mustered in December 13, 1861. Left State for Louisville, Ky., January 24, 1862. Attached to Artillery, 4th Division, Army of the Ohio, to March, 1862. Artillery, 6th Division, Army of the Ohio, to September, 1862. 15th Brigade, 6th Division, 2nd Corps, Army of the Ohio, to November, 1862. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, Left Wing 14th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to January, 1863. Artillery, 1st Division, 21st Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland,  to October, 1863. 2nd Division, Artillery Reserve, Dept. of the Cumberland, to November, 1863. Garrison Artillery, Chattanooga, Tenn., to January, 1865.

SERVICE. — Movement to Nashville, Tenn., February 10-25, 1862. Occupation of Nashville February 25 to March 17. March to Savannah, Tenn., March 17-April 6. Battle of Shiloh, Tenn., April 7 (Reserve). Advance on and siege of Corinth, Miss., April 29-May 30. Pursuit to Booneville May 31-June 12. Buell's Campaign in Northern Alabama and Middle Tennessee June to August. Action at Little Pond, near McMinnville, August 30. March to Louisville, Ky., in pursuit of Bragg August 30-September 26. Pursuit of Bragg to Loudon, Ky., October 1-22. Battle of Perryville, Ky., October 8 (Reserve). Nelson's Cross Roads October 18. March to Nashville, Tenn., October 22-November 7, and duty there till December 26. Murfreesboro Pike November 9. Advance on Murfreesboro December 26-30. Lavergne December 26-27. Battle of Stone's River December 30-31, 1862. and January 1-3, 1863. Duty at Murfreesboro till June. Middle Tennessee (or Tullahoma) Campaign June 23-July 7. Occupation of Middle Tennessee till August 16. Passage of the Cumberland Mountains and Tennessee River and Chickamauga, (Ga.) Campaign August 16-September 22. Lee and Gordon's Mills September 11-13 and September 17-18. Battle of Chickamauga September 19-20. Siege of Chattanooga, Tenn., September 24-November 23. Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign November 23-27. Duty at Chattanooga till March, 1865. (A detachment at Resaca, Ga., till November, 1864, participating in the repulse of Hood's attack on Resaca October 12. Rejoined Battery at Chattanooga November, 1864.) Non-Veterans mustered out January 25, 1865. Veterans and Recruits consolidated with 7th Indiana Battery March 13, 1865.

Battery lost during service 5 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 10 Enlisted men by disease. Total 15.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1113-4

9th Indiana Independent Battery Light Artillery

Organized at Indianapolis, Ind., and mustered in December 20, 1861. Duty at Indianapolis, Ind., till January 27, 1862. Moved to Cairo, Ill., January 27, and duty there till March 27. Remustered February 25, 1862. Attached to Military District of Cairo to April, 1862. Artillery, 3rd Division, Army of the Tennessee, to July, 1862. Artillery, 1st Division, District of Jackson, Tenn., to September, 1862. Artillery, 4th Division, District of Jackson to November, 1862. Artillery, 4th Division, District of Jackson, Right Wing 13th Army Corps (Old), Dept. of the Tennessee, to December, 1862. Artillery, 4th Division, 17th Army Corps, to January, 1863. Artillery, 4th Division, 16th Army Corps, to March, 1863. Artillery, District of Columbus, Ky., 6th Division, 16th Army Corps, to July, 1863. 1st Brigade, District of Columbus, 6th Division, 16th Army Corps, to January, 1864. Artillery, 3rd Division, 16th Army Corps, to December, 1864. 1st Brigade, 2nd Division (Detachment), Army of the Tennessee, Dept. of the Cumberland, to January, 1865. Indiana to March, 1865. Camp Butler, Ill., to June, 1865.

SERVICE. — Moved to Pittsburg Landing, Tenn., March 27, 1862. Battle of Shiloh, Tenn., April 6-7. Advance on and siege of Corinth, Miss., April 29-May 30. Moved to Bolivar, Tenn., and duty there till November, 1862. Action at Bolivar August 30. Grant's Central Mississippi Campaign November, 1862, to January, 1863. Duty at Tallahatchie River December 24, 1862, to January 20, 1863. Moved to Colliersville, Tenn., thence to Memphis, Tenn., and to Columbus, Ky., March, 1863. Duty there till July 10. Expedition to Cape Girardeau April 29-May 4. Moved to Clinton, Ky., July 10. Campaign against Roddy's forces July 15-August 4. Duty at Union City, Tenn., August 4, 1863, to January 23, 1864. Pursuit of Forest December 20-26, 1863. Ordered to Vicksburg, Miss., January 23. Meridian Campaign February 3-March 2. Red River Campaign March 10-May 22. Fort DeRussy March 14. Occupation of Alexandria March 16. Henderson's Hill March 21. Battle of Pleasant Hill April 9. About Cloutiersville April 22-24. Alexandria April 30-May 13. Bayou LaMourie May 6-7. Retreat to Morganza May 13-20. Avoyelle's Prairie, Marksville, May 16. Yellow Bayou May 18. Moved to Vicksburg, Miss., May 19-24; thence to Memphis, Tenn., May 25-June 10. Lake Chicot, Ark., June 6-7. Smith's Expedition to Tupelo, Miss., July 5-21 (Non-Veterans). Harrisburg, near Tupelo, July 14-15. Old Town (or Tishamingo Creek) July 15. Smith's Expedition to Oxford, Miss., October 1-30. Moved to Jefferson Barracks, Mo., September 8-19. Expedition to DeSoto September 20-October 1. March through Missouri in pursuit of Price October 2-November 19. Moved to Nashville, Tenn., November 25-December 1. Battles of Nashville December 15-16. Pursuit of Hood to the Tennessee River December 17-28. Ordered to Indiana January 25, 1865; blown up on Steamer "Eclypse" at Johnsonville January 27, 1865, and out of 70 Officers and men but 10 escaped unhurt. Non-Veterans mustered out March 6, 1865. Veterans and Recruits on duty at Camp Butler, Springfield, Ill., till June. Mustered out June 25, 1865.

Battery loss during service 6 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 55 Enlisted men by disease. Total 61.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1114

Thursday, April 11, 2019

10th Indiana Independent Battery Light Artillery

Organized at Indianapolis, Ind., January 25, 1862, and ordered to Louisville, Ky. Attached to Artillery, 4th Division, Army of the Ohio, to June, 1862. Reserve Artillery Army of the Ohio to July 1862. Artillery, 6th Division, Army of the Ohio, to September, 1862. 21st Brigade, 6th Division, 2nd Corps, Army of the Ohio, to November, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, Left Wing 14th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to January, 1863. Artillery, 1st Division, 21st Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to October, 1863. Artillery, 2nd Division, 4th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to March, 1864. Garrison Artillery, Chattanooga, Tenn., Dept. of the Cumberland, to April, 1864. Unattached Artillery, Dept. of the Cumberland, to August, 1864. District of North Alabama, Dept. of the Cumberland, to July, 1865.

SERVICE. — Advance on Nashville, Tenn., February 10-25, 1862. Occupation of Nashville February 25-March 17. March to Savannah, Tenn., March 17-April 6. Battle of Shiloh April 6-7 (Reserve). Advance on and siege of Corinth, Miss., April 29-May 30. Occupation of Corinth May 30. Pursuit to Booneville May 31-June 12. Buell's Campaign in Northern Alabama and Middle Tennessee June to August. March to Louisville, Ky., in pursuit of Bragg August 21-September 26. Pursuit of Bragg to Loudon, Ky., October 1-22. Battle of Perryville, Ky., October 8 (Reserve). March to Nashville, Tenn., October 22-November 7, and duty there till December 26. Advance on Murfreesboro December 26-30. Battle of Stone's River December 30-31, 1862, and January 1-3, 1863. Duty at Murfreesboro till June. Reconnoissance to Nolensville and Versailles January 13-15. Expedition to McMinnville April 20-30. Middle Tennessee (or Tullahoma) Campaign June 23-July 7. Occupation of Middle Tennessee till August 16. Chickamauga (Ga.) Campaign August 16-September 22. Occupation of Chattanooga, Tenn., September 9. Assigned to duty as garrison. Siege of Chattanooga September 24-November 24. Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign November 23-27. Lookout Mountain November 24. Mission Ridge November 25. Garrison duty at Chattanooga till March, 1864. 88 men transferred to 5th and 18th Indiana Batteries March 1864. Balance assigned to duty on Gunboat "Stone River" and at Decatur, Ala., till June 19, 1865. Fletcher's Ferry May 18, 1864. Battery brought together June, 1865, and duty at Huntsville, Ala., till July 2. Moved to Indianapolis, Ind., July 2-6 and mustered out July 10, 1865.

Battery lost during service 5 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 22 Enlisted men by disease. Total 27.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1114

Charles Lowe to Dr. LeBaron Russell, December 7, 1863

Somerville, Dec. 7th, 1863.

My Dear Sir, — It gives me great pleasure to present, at your request, a statement of the impression made upon my mind by a visit to the field of operations of the Educational Commission for Freedmen, in the department of South Carolina. I had an opportunity to visit many of the schools and plantations on Port Royal, St. Helena and Ladies Islands, and to converse with many who were familiar with the condition of the freed population, and will state as briefly as I can the result of my observation.

First, As to the Schools.

In the immediate vicinity of Beaufort the teachers labor at great disadvantage. The town is an aggregate of Government offices, hospitals and camps. An excessive population of freed people has congregated there, and they are exposed to all the bad influences of such a community. The effect is seen in the Schools, in a want of punctuality and in a restless spirit on the part of the children. Yet even in these Schools the success of the attempt was very gratifying. The children seemed bright and eager to learn, and showed remarkable proficiency. Here, as indeed in all the Schools I visited, I was greatly struck by the excellence of the teachers employed. In one of the Schools in Beaufort, there was acting as an assistant, a young colored man — formerly a member of the 54th Massachusetts Regiment, and disabled at Wagner. He was teaching some of the classes, and as I watched him I thought he was teaching very successfully. Certainly he had the perfect respect and attention of the pupils, and it seemed to me that such men might be thus employed to advantage, more frequently than they are.

As you go away from Beaufort, the bad influences of that place gradually lessen, till, on the plantations ten miles distant, the people are quite out of their reach, and the consequence was very apparent. Here, with no better teachers (for where all are so good I could not recognize any difference), the discipline of the Schools was greatly superior, and their whole character compared favorably with that of any of our Northern Schools of the same grade.

Second, As regards the ability of the freed people to support and govern themselves, my impressions are equally favorable.

Here again, Beaufort and its immediate vicinity affords a most unfavorable condition for the experiment. And many visitors, judging from what they see there, may give unfair statements in regard to its success. The place, as I have already said, has just the effect, on the people gathered there, that a prolonged muster-field would have on a great mass of people who might crowd about it. Considering this, it was a matter of surprise to me that things are no worse. There is no disorder, and a Quarter-Master, who has occasion to employ a very large number of the men, told me that he never had so little difficulty with laborers. On Thanksgiving day they were all discharged for a holiday, and he said to me that, whereas, with white men, he should be dreading trouble from their absence or disorderly conduct the next morning after the day's carousing, he was sure that these men would all be promptly at their work.

On the plantations removed from the camps the condition of things is most gratifying. The people labor well, and are easily managed, and the superintendents say are always ready to do anything that you can persuade them is for their advantage.

I will not anticipate the statements which are being prepared by one gentleman there (Mr. E. S. Philbrick), in which it will show conclusively the satisfactoriness of their voluntary paid labor so far as the employers are concerned. My only purpose is to testify, as a casual observer, to the good order, the respectful demeanor and thrifty appearance of the colored population, and the general evidence which such a visit could give of a good state of things.

One thing particularly impressed me. I saw the people everywhere in their homes and in the fields. I have seen the working classes in many countries of the world, and I never saw a peasantry so cleanly dressed, so respectable in their outward appearance or apparently so happy. This is certain in regard to these people — that they are abundantly able to support themselves. If your organization has made any mistake, it has been that you felt at first too little confident of that, and assumed that they must be helped by donations in charity. Undoubtedly there was, for a while, much destitution, and your relief was most timely; but the generosity of the supply encouraged a feeling that they could live without labor, which has been one of the great difficulties to overcome. They certainly need help no longer. I saw them at the stores kept on the Islands, buying, with plenty of money, every variety of articles, and heard of no want.

A paymaster told me that, under the order of General Saxton, permitting them to apply for lands hereafter to be sold, the sum of $4000 has already been deposited by freedmen. One man is now owner of the plantation of his former master, which he purchased with money loaned him, and which he has now paid for by the earnings of this year's crop.

What interested me most in what I saw, was the conviction, that here is being worked out the problem of whether the black race is fitted for freedom. In many respects the circumstances in this locality are such as to make the experiment peculiarly satisfactory. 1st, The colored people on these Islands are admitted to be inferior to those in most portions of the South, partly because kept more degraded, and partly because close intermarrying has caused them to deteriorate. 2dly, After being left by their masters, they lived for a time under no kind of restraint. And 3dly, By a well meant generosity, when first visited by our sympathy they were encouraged to believe that they could live under freedom without the necessity of labor. .

Yet, under all these disadvantages, the experiment has been a triumphant success — apparent, beyond question, to any one who can observe.

To be sure, it can probably never happen that on any general scale, those who shall give to the newly freed people their first instructions in freedom, shall be men and women of such high character and ability as those who have undertaken it here. I was amazed when I saw among the teachers and superintendents so many persons of the very highest culture, and fitted for the very highest positions. I confess I felt sometimes as though it was lavishing too much on this work; but then I considered (what is now the great feeling with which I regard the whole thing) that this is a grand , experiment which is settling for the whole nation this great problem. And when I saw how completely it has settled it, I felt that it was worthy of all that had been given. I believe that the importance of the movement is yet to- be realized when the operations on this field shall become the great example for every part of the land.

I am, with great respect, very truly yours,
Charles Lowe.
Dr. LeBaron Busselly Boston.

SOURCE: New-England Educational Commission for Freedmen, Extracts from Letters of Teachers and Superintendents of the New-England Educational Commission for Freedmen, Fourth Series, January 1, 1864, p. 13-4

Diary of Laura M. Towne: Monday, May 19, 1862

Our men have returned from Hilton Head and nearly all are eager to go there again and serve in the forts, though Marcus says he does not wish to fight, but only to learn to fight. . . .

Very much has occurred lately, but I have no time to write. I have received and distributed twenty-one boxes of clothing, having sold over $155 worth and sent out fifteen boxes to the plantations, which will be sold on account or given away. . . . People have come from great distances to buy here and seem almost crazy at the sight of clothes — willing to pay any price.
We have had to refuse to sell, being so overworked. I am sorry to say that I have discovered two cases of pilfering, and the cotton house has been entered again and again, we think, but nothing that we can miss is taken. Our house-servants are honest as the day.

Mr. French spent Saturday night and preached here on Sunday. He thinks good times are coming for us. He says that General Saxton1 will be our friend, and that we shall have the military in our favor instead of against us as before. The danger now seems to be — not that we shall be called enthusiasts, abolitionists, philanthropists, but cotton agents, negro-drivers, oppressors. The mischief has been that on this side of the water, on these islands, the gentlemen have been determined to make the negroes show what they can do in the way of cotton, unwhipped. But they have only changed the mode of compulsion. They force men to prove they are fit to be free men by holding a tyrant's power over them. Almost every one who has attempted this has failed. Those who have not attempted driving are loved and obeyed. On the rationed islands, Port Royal and Edisto, the negroes have worked much better and have been perfectly contented.

Last Saturday the provisions from Philadelphia were distributed, and I heard our folks singing until late, just as they did after their first payment of wages, only then they sang till morning.

Thorp was here the other night. He wanted Mr. Pierce to let him stay in his present position for a time, for Mr. P. had wanted to remove him. He pleaded so that Mr. P. yielded and Mr. T. went back to work, but he is now ill and Sumner is taking his place in the distribution of clothes and food. This has not yet been begun and the people are gloomy. Last Sunday Ria, of Gab. Capers, came over to me and asked me to speak to Mr. Pierce about her horse. Mr. Saulsbury, a cotton agent, had taken away a fine horse (belonging to the estate), which Ria took care of and used, and in its place he gave her an old beast to take her to church, as she is paralytic. She came to church and heard that Mr. Eustis, the provost marshal, who had made a law that no negro should ride any horse without a pass, was going to take away the horses of all the negroes who had come to church without a pass. She appealed to Mr. Pierce. He sent her to Mr. Park. She is afraid of Mr. Park and appealed to me. Park was there and I went directly to him. He heard me, and smiled as if a little pleased to be petitioned, came forward and promised the woman a pass or permission hereafter to use the horse. The Mr. Field, a sutler and friend of the Whitneys, who was here a few days ago, told me he had found a fine horse on the island named Fanny — a thoroughbred, which he meant to take North with him. As Ria's good horse's name was Fanny and he was probably one of Saulsbury's gleanings, I think we can see how the negroes have been wronged in every way. Last Sunday Mrs. Whiting asked me to accept a quarter of lamb. I offered to buy it and we had it for dinner. Afterwards Mrs. W. told me she had no more right to the lamb than I had, that she took it from the estate, had it killed and generously gave me part. I told her of the strict military order against it, when she said Government agents had a right to kill, and that Mr. Mack and others did so. Mr. Pierce instantly wrote to Mr. Mack to ask if he had done this thing. Mr. Whiting has not been a Government agent for two months, and yet he lives in Government property, making the negroes work without pay for him and living upon “the fat of the lamb,” — selling too, the sugar, etc., at rates most wicked, such as brown sugar, twenty-five cents a pound; using Government horses and carriages, furniture, corn, garden vegetables, etc. It is too bad. The cotton agents, many of them, are doing this.
_______________

1 Rufus Saxton, Brigadier-General of Volunteers.

SOURCE: Rupert Sargent Holland, Editor, Letters and Diary of Laura M. Towne: Written from the Sea Islands of South Carolina 1862-1864, p. 54-7

Wednesday, April 10, 2019

Judge Ebenezer R. Hoar to Governor John A. Andrew, May 1861

Saturday afternoon.

My Dear Fellow: I came to seize you and take you down to dine at our club — where we expect Motley — for your soul's salvation or body's, at least. Send that foolish Council away till Monday. A man who has no respect for Saturday afternoon, has but one step to take, to join in abolishing the 4th of July. “The Court, having considered your case, do adjudge,” that you come — if you can't come now, come down half an hour hence — to Parker's.

Yours,
E. R. Hoar.

SOURCE: Henry Greenleaf Pearson, The Life of John A. Andrew: Governor of Massachusetts, 1861-1865, Volume 1, p. 261

John L. Motley Anna Lothrop Benjamin Motley, September 22, 1863

Vienna,           
September 22, 1863.

My dearest Mother: Here in this capital the great interest just now is about the new Mexican emperor. The Archduke Maximilian is next brother to the Emperor of Austria, and about thirty years of age. He has been a kind of Lord High Admiral, an office which, in the present condition of the imperial navy, may be supposed to be not a very onerous occupation. He was Governor-General of Lombardy until that kingdom was ceded to Victor Emmanuel, and he is considered a somewhat restless and ambitious youth. He has literary pretensions, too, and has printed, without publishing, several volumes of travels in various parts of the world. The matter is not yet decided. It is, I believe, unquestionable that the archduke is most desirous to go forth on the adventure. It is equally certain that the step is exceedingly unpopular in Austria. That a prince of the house of Hapsburg should become the satrap of the Bonaparte dynasty, and should sit on an American throne which could not exist a moment but for French bayonets and French ships, is most galling to all classes of Austrians. The intrigue is a most embarrassing one to the government. If the fatal gift is refused, Louis Napoleon of course takes it highly in dudgeon. If it is accepted, Austria takes a kind of millstone around her neck in the shape of gratitude for something she didn't want, and some day she will be expected to pay for it in something she had rather not give. The deputation of the so-called notables is expected here this week, and then the conditions will be laid down on which Maximilian will consent to live in the bed of roses of Montezuma and Iturbide. I still entertain a faint hope that the negotiations may be protracted, and that something may interrupt them before they are concluded. The matter is a very serious and menacing one to us.

Fortunately our President is as honest and upright a man as ever lived, and there is no Minister of Foreign Affairs living to compare in ability with Seward. I think he will steer us clear of war, and a foreign war is the only thing which can save the rebellion from extermination. No paper published of late has given me such unalloyed pleasure as the President's letter to the Illinois Republican Committee. The transparent honesty and unsophisticated manliness of his character breathe through every line. Happy the people who can have so homely and honest a chief, when others live under Louis Napoleons and Jeff Davises!

Good-by, my dearest mother. All send best love to father and yourself and all the family, and I remain

Ever your affectionate son,
J. L. M.

SOURCE: George William Curtis, editor, The Correspondence of John Lothrop Motley in Two Volumes, Library Edition, Volume 2, p. 341-2