Monday, March 27, 2017

Montgomery C. Meigs to William H. Seward, April 5, 1861

new York, April 5, 1861.
Hon. W. H. Seward:

Powhatan was ready to sail at 6 P. M.; telegram received by Captain Foote, commandant of Navy Yard, to detain. First, disobedience of orders, came through Stringham; second, Secretary of the Navy. President's orders were to sail as soon as ready. This is fatal; what is to be done? Answer 110 Astor House.

M. C Meigs.

SOURCE:  Samuel Wylie Crawford, The Genesis of the Civil War: The Story of Sumter, 1860-1861, p. 414

James H. Lane to John Brown, September 7, 1857

(Private.)
Lawrence, Sept. 7, 1857.

Sir, — We are earnestly engaged in perfecting an organization for the protection of the ballot-box at the October election (first Monday). Whitman and Abbot have been East after money and arms for a mouth past; they write encouragingly, and will be hack in a few days. We want you, with all the materials you have. I see no objection to your coming into Kansas publicly. I can furnish you just such a force as you may deem necessary for your protection here and after your arrival. I went up to see you, but failed. Now what is wanted is this: write me concisely what transportation you require, how much money, and the number of men needed to escort you into the Territory safely; and if you desire it I will come up with them.

Yours respectfully,
J. H. Lane.
To Captain John Brown, Tabor.

SOURCE: Franklin B. Sanborn, The Life and Letters of John Brown, p. 401

Diary of Gideon Welles: Saturday, May 16, 1863

Saw Seward this morning respecting Wilkes. After talking over the subject, he said he cared nothing about Wilkes, that if he was removed he would be made a martyr, and both he (S.) and myself would be blamed and abused by the people, who knew not the cause that influenced and governed us. He then for the first time alluded to the removal of Butler, which he said was a necessity to appease France. Nevertheless France was not satisfied, yet Butler's removal had occasioned great discontent and called down much censure. If I could stand the recall of Wilkes, he thought he could. I answered him that any abuse of me in the discharge of my duty and when I knew I was right would never influence my course. In this case I could better stand his recall than the responsibility of sending him into the Pacific, where he would have great power and be the representative of the Government; for he is erratic, impulsive, opinionated, somewhat arbitrary towards his subordinates, and is always disinclined to obey orders which he receives if they do not comport with his own notions. His special mission, in his present command, had been to capture the Alabama. In this he had totally failed, while zealous to catch blockade-runners and get prize money. Had he not been in the West Indies, we might have captured her, but he had seized the Vanderbilt, which had specific orders and destination and gone off with her prize-hunting, thereby defeating our plans. Seward wished me to detach him because he had not taken the Alabama and give that as the reason. I care to assign no reasons, — none but the true ones, and it is not politic to state them.

When I was about leaving, Seward asked as a favor that I would address him a proposition that the matter of the Mont Blanc should be left to Admiral Bailey alone. The whole pecuniary interest involved did not, he said, exceed six or eight hundred dollars, and it would greatly relieve him at a pinch, if I would do him this favor, and harm no one, for the vessel had been seized sleeping at anchor within a mile of the Cays, and was retained by the court. I asked what he had to do with it anyway. He gave me no satisfactory answer, but went into the trouble he had in keeping the Englishmen quiet and his present difficulties. All of which, I take it, means he has loosely committed himself, meddled with what was none of his business, made inconsiderate promises to Lord Lyons, and wishes me, who have had nothing to do with it, but have objected to the whole proceeding, to now propose that Admiral Bailey shall be sole referee. This will enable him to cover up his own error and leave it to be inferred that I have prompted it, as B. is a naval officer.

SOURCE: Gideon Welles, Diary of Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Navy Under Lincoln and Johnson, Vol. 1: 1861 – March 30, 1864, p. 304-5

Diary of John Hay: Tuesday, January 19, 1864

A cold, raw day. Passed Charleston early in the morning. Fort Sumter lit up by a passing waft of sunshine. A shot fired from Cumming's Point as we passed. The weather — demoralized by Yankee contact — growing so cold as to drive passengers below stairs to euchre.

SOURCES: Clara B. Hay, Letters of John Hay and Extracts from Diary, Volume 1, p. 155-6.

Diary of Lieutenant-Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes: 9:30 a.m., Sunday, August 10, 1862

Captain Drake and Gilmore's Cavalry have returned. The infantry are bathing in Bluestone. The expedition was completely successful, and was of more importance than I supposed it would be. They reached the salt well about 2:30 A. M.; found the works in full blast — a good engine pumping, two pans thirty feet long boiling, etc., etc. The salt is good; considerable salt was on hand. All the works were destroyed by fire. A canoe found at Crump's was taken to the ferry.

I spent an anxious night. Jackson, Major Comly's scout, reported that the salt well was guarded. This came to me after I was in bed and too late to send the word to the expedition. I anticipated trouble there and felt anxious enough. I slept little, was up often. But luckily all went well. Not a man was in sight. This morning, as they were returning, the cavalry were bushwhacked, horses wounded, clothes cut, but no man hurt.

Received a “secret” order to be ready to move on one-half hour's notice. Rode post to the ferry; set the men to preparing for one of General Pope's minute and practical inspections.

SOURCE: Charles Richard Williams, editor, Diary and Letters of Rutherford Birchard Hayes, Volume 2, p. 322-3

Diary of 1st Sergeant John L. Ransom: February 28, 1864

Had the honor (?) of seeing Jefferson Davis again and part of his congress to-day. They visited Libby and we were allowed to look out of the windows to see them as they passed in and out of the building. Strut around like chickens with frozen feet. David Benjamin walked with the President and is a much better looking man. Prisoners were notified that if they made any insulting remarks they would be fired at. Have no more exalted opinion of them than before.

SOURCE: John L. Ransom, Andersonville Diary, p. 36-7

Diary of John Beauchamp Jones: March 23, 1863

The snow has nearly disappeared, and the roads are very bad. No food is brought to the market, and such as may be found in the city is held at famine prices.

I saw a letter to day from Bishop Lay, in Arkansas. He says affairs in that State wear a dark and gloomy aspect. He thinks the State is lost.

Gen. Beauregard writes the Hon. Mr. Miles that he has not men enough, nor heavy guns enough, for the defense of Charleston. If this were generally known, thousands would despair, being convinced that those charged with the reins of power are incompetent, unequal to the crisis, and destined to conduct them to destruction rather than independence.

SOURCE: John Beauchamp Jones, A Rebel War Clerk's Diary at the Confederate States Capital, Volume 1, p. 278-9

Diary of 1st Lieutenant Lemuel A. Abbott: Sunday, September 11, 1864

A very quiet dull day; am looking for news from the Army of the Potomac; nothing has occurred since we left; those armies watch each other, while we do what little fighting there is done. So much constant chasing of the enemy night and day, frequent brushes, laying on our arms from 3 o'clock till daylight, etc., is very wearing and I shall be glad when Early is licked, as he surely will be for Sheridan fights like a tornado — he does things. He's getting a good ready, and we'll be heard from soon. Ta, ta, Early! Run back to Petersburg! The peace party seems to be dissatisfied with McClellan. In my opinion his stock's below par, at the same time if his party nominate a new man it will be the best thing that can happen for us; wonder if most of Company E don't sympathize with the peace party? Hope my men are not fickle politically — like Jacob's coat of many colors. It takes a strong man in these times, though, to stand up to the rack when there isn't much in it but ammunition, and it's grimly give and take with no white feather mix, and neither army will give up. Wonder if we won't be abused for all this bye and bye by other than copperheads?

SOURCE: Lemuel Abijah Abbott, Personal Recollections and Civil War Diary, 1864, p. 146

Diary of Sergeant Major Luman Harris Tenney: Sunday, February 15, 1863

Thought some of going to camp, but concluded not to. Made some taffy and read some in “Ravenshoe.” Called at Captain's quarters and had a good visit. Seems lonely without Thede after being with him so constantly for a week or two. How hard it is for mother to be entirely alone. God bless her.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 56

Diary of 1st Lieutenant John S. Morgan: Friday, June 18, 1865

Cholera morbus all night, was 6 cases in Regt. quite weak today. Yellow fever in Matamorass. awful hot & poor water.

SOURCE: “Diary of John S. Morgan, Company G, 33rd Iowa Infantry,” Annals of Iowa, 3rd Series, Vol. 13, No. 8, April 1923, p. 606

Sunday, March 26, 2017

Joseph Holt & Isaac Touchy to James Glynn et al, January 29, 1862

WASHINGTON, January 29, 1861.

To JAMES GLYNN, commanding the Macedonian; Capt. W. S. WALKER, commanding the Brooklyn, and other naval officers in command; and Lieut. ADAM J. SLEMMER, First Regiment Artillery, U. S. Army, commanding Fort Pickens, Pensacola, Fla.:

In consequence of the assurances received from Mr. Mallory in a telegram of yesterday to Messrs. Slidell, Hunter, and Bigler, with a request it should be laid before the President, that Fort Pickens would not be assaulted, and an offer of such an assurance to the same effect from Colonel Chase, for the purpose of avoiding a hostile collision, upon receiving satisfactory assurances from Mr. Mallory and Colonel Chase that Fort Pickens will not be attacked, you are instructed not to land the company on board the Brooklyn unless said fort shall be attacked or preparations shall be made for its attack. The provisions necessary for the supply of the fort you will land. The Brooklyn and other vessels of war on the station will remain, and you will exercise the utmost vigilance and be prepared at a moment's warning to land the company at Fort Pickens, and you and they will instantly repel an attack on the fort. The President yesterday sent a special message to Congress commending the Virginia resolutions of compromise. The commissioners of different States are to meet here on Monday, the 4th February, and it is important that during their session a collision of arms should be avoided, unless an attack should be made or there should be preparation for such an attack. In either event the Brooklyn and the other vessels will act promptly.

Your right, and that of the other officers in command at Pensacola, freely to communicate with the Government by special messenger, and its right in the same manner to communicate with yourself and them, will remain intact as the basis on which the present instruction is given.

 J. HOLT,
Secretary of War.

ISAAC TOUCEY,
Secretary of the Navy.

SOURCES: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volume 1 (Serial No. 1), p. 355-6; Samuel Wylie Crawford, The Genesis of the Civil War: The Story of Sumter, 1860-1861, p. 401-2

John Brown to Franklin B. Sanborn, October 1, 1857

Tabor, Fremont County, Iowa, Oct. I, 1857.
F. B. Sanborn, Concord, Mass.

My Dear Sir, — Two days since I received your very kind letter of the 14th September; also one from James Hunnewell, Esq., saying he had sent me $72.68 through P. T. Jackson, Esq., of Boston; for both which I am very glad.1 I cannot express my gratitude for your earnest and early attention to my wants and those of my family. I regret that Mr. Hunnewell did not at once send me either a check or a draft on New York or Boston, as it will probably be one month or more before I can realize it; and I have not the means of paying my board bill here, not having as yet received anything from Mr. Whitman toward a balance of five hundred dollars, nor heard from him. If I get the money from Mr. Hunnewell and Mr. Whitman, it will answer my present wants, except the secret service I wrote you about. I have all the aims I am likely to need, but am destitute of saddle-bags or knapsacks, holsters and belts; have only a few blankets, no shovels or spades, no mattocks, but three or four adzes (ought to have been one hundred), and am nearly destitute of cooking utensils. The greater part of what I have just named I must do without till another spring, at any rate. I found here one brass field-piece complete, and one damaged gun-carriage, with some ammunition suitable for it; some seventy to seventy-five old damaged United States rifles and muskets, one dozen old sabres, some powder and lead (enough for present use; weight not known), — I suppose sent by National Committee. Also one dozen boxes and barrels of clothing, boots, etc., with three hand gristmills, sent to Nebraska City, from same source. I also got from Dr. Jesse Bowen, of Iowa City, one old wagon, which broke down with a light load on the way; also nine full-rigged tents, three sets tent-poles (additional), eleven pairs blankets, and three axes, sent there by National Committee. Also from Mr. Hurd I got an order for fifty dollars' worth of tents, wagon-covering, ropes, etc., at Chicago, which was paid me. I find one hundred and ninety-four carbines, about thirty-three hundred ball cartridges, all the primers, but no iron ladles. This, I believe, with the teams and wagon I purchased, will give you a pretty good idea of the stuff I have. I had a gun and pair of pistols given me by Dr. Howe, and some three or four guns made for experiment by Mr. Thayer (a little cannon and carriage is one of them), and one nice rifle by the manufacturing company at Worcester.2 I had also a few revolvers, common guns, and sabres left on hand, that I took on with me in 1855. While waiting here I and my son have been trying to learn a little of the arts of peace from Colonel F., who is still with us. That is the school I alluded to.

Before I reached here, I had written particularly to friends in Kansas, saying that I wanted help to meet me here, and to wait for me should I be detained on the way. I also arranged with Mr. Whitman in regard to it in Chicago. He sent one man with one hundred and fifty dollars; forty of it he kept, and went immediately back. From that time I send you copies of some of the correspondence between Kansas and me, as rather essential to give you a correct idea of things in connection with my statements yet to be made. When I got on here I immediately wrote Mr. Whitman and several others what was my situation and wants. He (Mr. Whitman) has not written me at all since what 1 send. Others have written, as you will see. I wrote the man Mr. Whitman sent me, among the rest, but get no word from him since what I now send.

As to the policy of voting on Monday next, I think Lane hit his mark at the convention of Grasshopper's, if never before; I mean “An escape into the filthy sluice of a prison.” I had not been able to learn by papers or otherwise distinctly what course had been taken in Kansas till within a few days; and probably the less I have to say, the better.

I omitted above to say that I paid out five hundred and fifty dollars on a contract for one thousand superior pikes, as a cheap but effectual weapon to place in the hands of entirely unskilful and unpractised men, which will not easily get out of order, and require no ammunition. They will cost, handles and all complete, a little short of one dollar each. That contract I have not been able to fulfil; and wise military men may ridicule the idea; but “I take the whole responsibility of that job,” — so that I can only get them.

On hearing that Lane had come into Nebraska, I at once sent a young man with a line, saying I had been hurt, and was exceedingly anxious to see him early in September. To this he sent me no reply, unless Redpath's letter be one. I am now so far recovered from my hurt as to be able to do a little; and foggy as it is, “we do not give up the ship.” I will not say that Kansas, watered by the tears and blood of my children, shall yet be free or I fall. I intend at once to put the supplies I have in a secure place, and then to put myself and such as may go with me where we may get more speedy communications, and can wait until we know better how to act than we now do. 1 send this whole package to you, thinking Concord a less offensive name just now than Boston at this end of the route. I wish the whole conveyed to my friend Stearns and other friends, as old Brown's last report.

Until further advised, I wish all communications addressed to Jonas Jones, Esq., Tabor, Fremont County, Iowa, outwardly; and I hope you will all write often.

I had forgotten to say, that day before yesterday one single man, with no team at all, came from Lane to have me start at once for Kansas, as you will see by copies. Ho said he had left ten fine fellows about thirty miles back. The names he gave me were all strange to me, as well as himself. Tabor folks (some of them) speak slightingly of him, notwithstanding that he too is a general.
_______________

1 This note explains the source and object of this seasonable contribution.

2 These are the arms mentioned in Eli Thayer's letters.

SOURCE: Franklin B. Sanborn, The Life and Letters of John Brown, p. 398-401

John Brown to Franklin B. Sanborn, October 3, 1857

October. 3, 1857.

Yours, covering check, is this moment to hand, and will afford most seasonable relief. Express goes to K. at once to see how the land lies. You will hear again soon.

Yours most truly,
J. Brown.

SOURCE: Franklin B. Sanborn, The Life and Letters of John Brown, p. 401

James Hunnewell to John Brown [alias Nelson Hawkins], September 14, 1857

Boston, Sept 14,1857.
Nelson Hawkins. Esq., care of Jonas Jones, Tabor, Iowa.

Dear Sir, — By order of the (Mass.) Middlesex County Kansas Aid Committee. I have sent to yon through P. T. Jackson, Esq., treasurer of the State Committee, $72.63, “to be appropriated to the use of Captain John Brown, now at Tabor, Iowa, in support of the cause of freedom in Kansas.”

Very respectfully yours,
James Hunnewell,
Treasurer of Middlesex County Kannas Aid Commtee.

SOURCE: Franklin B. Sanborn, The Life and Letters of John Brown, p. 398

Saturday, March 25, 2017

Diary of Gideon Welles: Friday, May 15, 1863

The President called on me this morning with the basis of a dispatch which Lord Lyons proposed to send home. He had submitted it to Mr. Seward, who handed it to the President, and he brought it to me. The President read it to me, and when he concluded, I remarked the whole question of the mails belonged properly to the courts and I thought unless we proposed some new treaty arrangement it would be best the subject should continue with the courts as law and usage directed. “But,” he inquired, “have the courts ever opened the mails of a neutral government?” I replied, “Always, when the captured vessels on which mails were found were considered good prize.” “Why, then,” said he, “do you not furnish me with the fact? It is what I want, but you furnish me with no report that any neutral has ever been searched.” I said I was not aware that the right had ever been questioned. The courts made no reports to me whether they opened or did not open mail. The courts are independent of the Departments, to which they are not amenable. In the mails was often the best and only evidence that could insure condemnation. [I said] that I should as soon have expected an inquiry whether evidence was taken, witnesses sworn, and the cargoes examined as whether mails were examined. “But if mails ever are examined,” said he, “the fact must be known and recorded. What vessels,” he asked, “have we captured, where we have examined the mails?” “All, doubtless, that have had mails on board,” I replied. Probably most of them were not intrusted with mails. “What,'” asked he, '”was the first vessel taken?” “I do not recollect the name, a small blockade-runner, I think; I presume she had no mail. If she had, I have no doubt the court searched it and examined all letters and papers.” He was extremely anxious to ascertain if I recollected, or knew that any captured mail had been searched. I told him I remembered no specific mention, doubted if the courts ever reported to the Navy Department. Foreign governments, knowing of the blockade, would not be likely to make up mails for the ports blockaded. The Peterhoff had a mail ostensibly for Matamoras, which was her destination, but with a cargo and mails which we knew were intended for the Rebels, though the proof might be difficult since the mail had been given up. I sent for Watkins, who has charge of prize matters, to know if there was any record or mention of mails in any of the papers sent the Navy Department, but he could not call to mind anything conclusive. Some mention was made of mails or dispatches in the mail on board the Bermuda, which we captured, but it was incidental. Perhaps the facts might be got from the district attorneys, though he thought, as I did, that but few regular mails were given to blockade-runners. The President said he would frame a letter to the district attorneys, and in the afternoon he brought in a form to be sent to the attorneys in Philadelphia, New York, and Boston.

Read Chase the principal points in the Peterhoff case. He approved of my views, concurred in them fully, and said there was no getting around them.

SOURCE: Gideon Welles, Diary of Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Navy Under Lincoln and Johnson, Vol. 1: 1861 – March 30, 1864, p. 302-4

Diary of John Hay: January 15, 1864

On board the Fulton. The embarcation of the 54th Boys. Variety of complexions — redheads, — filing into their places on deck — singing, whistling, smoking and dancing — eating candy and chewing tobacco. Jolly little cuss, round, rosy and half-white, singing:—

Oh John Brown dey hung him
We're gwine to jine de Union Army
Oh John Brown dey hung him
We're gwine to Dixie's land.

Way down by James' River
Old massa's grave is made
And he or me is sure to fill it
When he meets de black Brigade.

We're gwine to trabbel to de Souf
To smack de rebels in de mouf.

SOURCES: Clara B. Hay, Letters of John Hay and Extracts from Diary, Volume 1, p. 155; for the entire diary entry see Tyler Dennett, Editor, Lincoln and the Civil War in the Diaries and Letter of John Hay, p. 154-5.

Diary of Lieutenant-Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes: Saturday, August 9, 1862

Am planning an expedition to go to Salt Well and destroy it; also to catch old Crump if he is at home. Jacobs, Company G, a scout, went up yesterday to Crump's Bottom. Reports favorably. All safe now. Curious, quiet fellow, Jacobs. He takes no grub, wears moccasins; passes himself for a guerrilla of the Rebels, eats blackberries when he can't get food; slips stealthily through the woods, and finds out all that is going.

Old Andy Stairwalt, a fat, queer-looking old fifer with a thin voice, and afflicted with a palpitation of the heart (!) — a great old coward, otherwise a worthy man — was one of the first men who reached here from the ferry after the attack of Wednesday. He was impressed that the enemy were in great force. I asked him if they fired their cannon rapidly. “Oh, yes,” said he, “very rapidly; they fired twice before I left the camp”!

Sad news. The dispatch tells us that “General Bob McCook was murdered by guerrillas while riding in front of his brigade in Tennessee.” He always said he did not expect to survive the war. He was a brave man, honest, rough, “an uncut diamond.” A good friend of mine; we have slept together through several stormy nights. I messed with him in his quarters on Mount Sewell. Would that he could have died in battle! Gallant spirit, hail and farewell!

I send out today Company E, thirty-nine men, K, twenty-seven men, H, about thirty men, and a squad of men from A, I, and C of twenty-seven men, and about twenty-five cavalry to stop the salt well in Mercer, twenty miles above here. Total force about one hundred and fifty men. They go up to Crump's Bottom, catch him if they can, take his canoe and the ferry-boat and destroy the Mercer salt well. This is the programme.

A charming affectionate letter from my dear wife. She speaks of her feelings on the night before the regiment left for the seat of war, a year ago the 24th of July. Dear Lucy, God grant you as much happiness as you deserve and your cup will indeed be full! She speaks of the blue-eyed beautiful youngest. He is almost eight months old. A letter from mother Hayes, more cheerful than usual, religious and affectionate. She is past seventy, and fears she will not live to see the end of the war. I trust she will, and to welcome me home again as of old she used to from college.

SOURCE: Charles Richard Williams, editor, Diary and Letters of Rutherford Birchard Hayes, Volume 2, p. 321-2

Lucy Webb Hayes to Lieut. Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes, August 2, 1862

Chillicothe, August 2 [1862]

The 24th of July a year ago was a happy, and yet, oh, sad night, and yet the thought that I was with you to the last moment of that sad parting sends such a thrill of joy through my heart. I think of it so often. ’Twas bitter to know that when morning dawned, instead of joy and happiness, ’twould bring such heavy sorrow, such bitter tears. We stood and gazed after the cars holding all that was dearest to us, but I was a soldier's wife, I must not cry yet. While standing there, an old woman spoke to Mother, asking who was gone; then she turned to me, “You had better take a good cry, my dear, ’twill lighten your heart.” How freshly everything comes before me now!

SOURCE: Charles Richard Williams, editor, Diary and Letters of Rutherford Birchard Hayes, Volume 2, p. 322

Diary of 1st Sergeant John L. Ransom: February 27, 1864

Organizing the militia; hauling artillery past the prison Have a good view of all that is going on. Bought a compass from one of the guards for seven dollars, greenbacks; worth half a dollar at home. It is already rumored among the men that we have a compass, a map of Virginia, a preparation to put on our feet to prevent dogs from tracking us, and we are looked up to as if we were sons of Irish lords in disguise, and are quite noted personages. Cold last night, and we suffer much in not having blankets enough, to keep us warm. The walls are cold and damp, making it disagreeable, and the stench nearly makes us sick. It is impossible for a person to imagine prison life until he has seen and realized it. No news of importance. Time passes much more drearily than when on Belle Isle. Were all searched again to-day but still keep my diary, although expecting to lose it every day; would be quite a loss, as the longer I write and remain a prisoner the more attached am I to my record of passing events. A man shot for putting his head out of the window. Men all say it served him right, for he had no business to thus expose himself against strict orders to the contrary. We are nearly opposite and not more than twenty rods from Libby Prison, which is a large tobacco warehouse Can see plenty of union officers, which it is a treat to look at. Hendryx had a fight with the raiders — got licked. He ain't so pretty as he was before, but knows more. I am very wise about such matters, consequently retain my beauty.

SOURCE: John L. Ransom, Andersonville Diary, p. 36

Diary of John Beauchamp Jones: March 22, 1863

It was thawing all night, and there is a heavy fog this morning. The snow will disappear in a few days.

A very large number of slaves, said to be nearly 40,000, have been collected by the enemy on the Peninsula and at adjacent points, for the purpose, it is supposed, of co-operating with Hooker's army in the next attempt to capture Richmond.

The snow has laid an embargo on the usual slight supplies brought to market, and all who had made no provision for such a contingency are subsisting on very short-commons. Corn-meal is selling at from $6 to $8 per bushel. Chickens $5 each. Turkeys $20. Turnip greens $8 per bushel. Bad bacon $1.50 per pound. Bread 20 cts. per loaf. Flour $38 per barrel,—and other things in proportion. There are some pale faces seen in the streets from deficiency of food; but no beggars, no complaints. We are all in rags, especially our underclothes. This for liberty!

The Northern journals say we have negro regiments on the Rappahannock and in the West. This is utterly untrue. We have no armed slaves to fight for us, nor do we fear a servile insurrection. We are at no loss, however, to interpret the meaning of such demoniac misrepresentations. It is to be seen of what value the negro regiments employed against us will be to the invader.

SOURCE: John Beauchamp Jones, A Rebel War Clerk's Diary at the Confederate States Capital, Volume 1, p. 278

Diary of 1st Lieutenant Lemuel A. Abbott: Tuesday, September 6, 1864

O, such a terrible day! Rain, wind, sleet and everything to make it gloomy. The Vermont troops have voted to-day as directed by the Governor. My Company (E) cast seven votes for the Republican candidate. The other men didn't know who the Democratic candidate was and so didn't vote. Nothing has disgusted me so since I left Vermont. I'm sadly disappointed politically, in my Company, but the men are good fighters and I like them. They seem devoted to me. It is disappointing, though, to have to send such a report to Vermont! It's mortifying! But I mustn't let the men know how I feel for it can't be helped now. It makes me feel queer, though, for my Republicanism is as staunch as the granite hill (the Bar re granite quarries) on which I was born. I am dazed at the result of the vote in Company E! I guess I'm in the wrong pew politically; very few democrats in Barre.

SOURCE: Lemuel Abijah Abbott, Personal Recollections and Civil War Diary, 1864, p. 144

Diary of 1st Lieutenant Lemuel A. Abbott: Wednesday, September 7, 1864

Was happily surprised to find it pleasant this morning; has turned out the finest day of the fall. Lieutenant H. W. Kingsley came up with the day's rations; ate supper with us. The moonlight, band music and charm of the night has killed the monotony.

SOURCE: Lemuel Abijah Abbott, Personal Recollections and Civil War Diary, 1864, p. 145

Diary of 1st Lieutenant Lemuel A. Abbott: Thursday, September 8, 1864

Such freaky weather; cool and rainy nearly all day. Chaplain Roberts of the Sixth Vermont, has called this afternoon. He's a fine man. I have been reading East Lynne. It's very dull in camp. I've written to Aunt Thompson this evening. The papers state the North is jubilant over our recent victories, and well they may be.

SOURCE: Lemuel Abijah Abbott, Personal Recollections and Civil War Diary, 1864, p. 145

Diary of 1st Lieutenant Lemuel A. Abbott: Friday, September 9, 1864

A fair day. Lieutenant H. W. Kingsley ate supper with us. He brought up three days' rations. Pert writes she is having a fine time in East Boylston, Mass. teaching. She sent me a letter from Cousin Byron Bradley. Cousin Abby Pierce is coming East this fall. I have finished reading East Lynne; it's a fine story.

SOURCE: Lemuel Abijah Abbott, Personal Recollections and Civil War Diary, 1864, p. 145

Diary of 1st Lieutenant Lemuel A. Abbott: Saturday, September 10, 1864

It's a cool day. Company and battalion drill was ordered this afternoon but we didn't drill as the Major is on picket. Lieutenant G. E. Davis came out of the Division hospital this afternoon. He's had a boil. I have made my election returns. It's very pleasant this evening in camp, but dull. I have written Pert.

SOURCE: Lemuel Abijah Abbott, Personal Recollections and Civil War Diary, 1864, p. 145-6

Diary of Sergeant Major Luman Harris Tenney: February 9, 1863

In the morning moved up to the commissary to make room for Lt. and Mrs. Abbey and child. Brougham came and I went to town with him in the evening. A lunch in town and then to Melissa's. Major P. and Reeve left for Kentucky. Met Brougham at 10 at Winard's and went to Mr. Crarey's for the night.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 56

Diary of Sergeant Major Luman Harris Tenney: February 10, 1863

After breakfast we four started out to visit the penitentiary. Called at Mr. Rice's. Got Mary and Mrs. Hickox and went to the Asylum instead. Was deeply interested and affected. So many pretty and talented little creatures among the sufferers. Saw Fanny H. off at 1 P. M. Uncle dead. Went with Brougham to Penitentiary, then to camp for the night. Answered a good letter from Fannie.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 56

Diary of Sergeant Major Luman Harris Tenney: February 11, 1863

After breakfast B. went with me to commissary and then to town. Drew and issued rations for ten days. Rained in the afternoon. Did the work alone. Thede went to town and brought me back Irving's “Life of Washington.” Commenced it. Case inquired about Thede enlisting in his company.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 56

Diary of Sergeant Major Luman Harris Tenney: February 12, 1863

A dark and unpleasant day, rainy. Saw some of the boys and talked over the invitation to Mr. Rice's. Thede got the papers made out for muster. Had to get me to sign Ma's name allowing him to enlist. Covil examined Thede's head. Made it out a good one. Let him look at some writing.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 56

Diary of Sergeant Major Luman Harris Tenney: February 13, 1863

When Chester came over we talked about going to Mr. Rice's in the evening and concluded we wouldn't go, so went over to Capt. N.'s and got him to give our regrets, etc. Saw the other boys before dark and none of them was going. I prefer staying in camp, a soldier's home.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 56

Diary of Sergeant Major Luman Harris Tenney: Saturday, February 14, 1863

Was kept quite busy in the forenoon, issuing bread and beef for two days. Thede got a pass from Capt. L. and left for a visit of a week at home. I wish I could be there with him. Home is dearer to me now than ever. Will God ever bring us all home on earth again? If not, may He in Heaven.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 56

Diary of 1st Lieutenant John S. Morgan: Monday, June 12, 1865

In camp all day. Orders this evig for Brig to march at 4 A. M. tomorrow, see a young shark.

SOURCE: “Diary of John S. Morgan, Company G, 33rd Iowa Infantry,” Annals of Iowa, 3rd Series, Vol. 13, No. 8, April 1923, p. 605

Diary of 1st Lieutenant John S. Morgan: Tuesday, June 13, 1865

Revelie at 3. A. M. breakfast at 3.4’, March at 5.30, follow the beach. Pleasant wind good traveling, reach Clarksville at 8.30, quite a no go across to Bagdad. No poles for tent.

SOURCE: “Diary of John S. Morgan, Company G, 33rd Iowa Infantry,” Annals of Iowa, 3rd Series, Vol. 13, No. 8, April 1923, p. 605

Diary of 1st Lieutenant John S. Morgan: Wednesday, June 14, 1865

Visit the Mexican side get poles for tent. About 300 of our soldiers over. Many drunk, drink & everything else cheap. return at 12, M. a fun over the swim P. M. the Rio grande is narrow swift and so muddy one cant wash in it.

SOURCE: “Diary of John S. Morgan, Company G, 33rd Iowa Infantry,” Annals of Iowa, 3rd Series, Vol. 13, No. 8, April 1923, p. 605

Diary of 1st Lieutenant John S. Morgan: Thursday, June 15, 1865

Communication with Bagdad stopped today. Several vessels arrive at Brazos with troops of 25 comps—— a shot was fired at one of our guards by some one secreted in a schooner across the river. A fleet of 40 sail lays in the harbor loaded with cotton for french

SOURCE: “Diary of John S. Morgan, Company G, 33rd Iowa Infantry,” Annals of Iowa, 3rd Series, Vol. 13, No. 8, April 1923, p. 605

Diary of 1st Lieutenant John S. Morgan: Friday, June 16, 1865

Genl Slack is assigned to command our Brigade. Issues orders for drill 2 hours. Parade sundown, no enlisted men to cross the river. Gulf so high that the black troops at Brazos cannot disembark.

SOURCE: “Diary of John S. Morgan, Company G, 33rd Iowa Infantry,” Annals of Iowa, 3rd Series, Vol. 13, No. 8, April 1923, p. 605-6

Diary of 1st Lieutenant John S. Morgan: Thursday, June 17, 1865

Go with some other officers to Bagdad stage was robbed last night from Matamoras by Cortimer's men. 2 custom house officer on a drunk stopped stage for $2.00 about 6 weeks ago & was shot for it. Shoot is the word in Mexico. A scooner lightening troops at Brazos missed the channel running in & was wrecked. A total loss, no lives lost.

SOURCE: “Diary of John S. Morgan, Company G, 33rd Iowa Infantry,” Annals of Iowa, 3rd Series, Vol. 13, No. 8, April 1923, p. 606

Friday, March 24, 2017

James E. Harvey to Andrew G. Magrath,James L. Pettigru, B. F. Dunkin & Miss S. C. Harvey, April 6, 1861

WASHINGTON, April 6, 1861.
To Hon. A. G. MAGRATH,  JAMES L. PETIGRU,
B. F. DUNKIN, and Miss S. C. HARVEY, Charleston, S.C.:

Order issued for withdrawal of Anderson's command. Scott declares it military necessity. This is private.

JAMES E. HARVEY.

SOURCES: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volume 1 (Serial No. 1), p. 287; Samuel Wylie Crawford, The Genesis of the Civil War: The Story of Sumter, 1860-1861, p. 393

Richard Realf to John Brown, July 6, 1857

Tabor, Iowa, July 6, 1857.
John Brown, Esq.

Dear Sir, — I arrived here to-day from Lawrence, bringing $150 minus my expenses up and down. These will amount to about $40, leaving you $110. Mr. Whitman could not, as you will see from his note signed “Edmunds,” spare you more; and the mule team you asked for could not be procured. I am sorry you have not arrived: I should like to have gone back with you. The Governor has instructed the Attorney-General of Kansas to enter a nolle prosequi in the case of the Free-State prisoners; so that you need be under no apprehension of insecurity as to yourself or the munitions you may bring with you. By writing a line to me or Mr. Whitman or Phillips at Lawrence immediately on your arrival here, we will come and meet you by way of Topeka. God speed you!

Truly,
Richard Realf.

SOURCE: Franklin B. Sanborn, The Life and Letters of John Brown, p. 398

Diary of Gideon Welles: Thursday, May 14, 1863

I wrote, two or three weeks since, a letter to Admiral Du Pont of affairs at Charleston and his reports, but have delayed sending it, partly in hopes I should have something suggestive and encouraging, partly because Fox requested me to wait, in the belief we should have additional information. Du Pont is morbidly sensitive, and to vindicate himself wants to publish every defect and weakness of the ironclads and to disparage them, regardless of its effect in inspiring the Rebels to resist them, and impairing the confidence of our own men in their invulnerability. I have tried to be kind and frank in my letter, but shall very likely give offense.

Had a little conversation to-day with Chase and Bates on two or three matters, but the principal subject was Earl Russell's speech.

SOURCE: Gideon Welles, Diary of Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Navy Under Lincoln and Johnson, Vol. 1: 1861 – March 30, 1864, p. 302

Diary of John Hay: January 13, 1864

I received to-day my commission as A. A. G. from the War Department, and accepted it, taking the oath of allegiance before Notary Callan.

Made a visit or two.

Went into the President's room and announced myself ready to start. “Great good luck and God's blessing go with you, John!” How long will you stay, one month or six months?

SOURCES: Clara B. Hay, Letters of John Hay and Extracts from Diary, Volume 1, p. 154-5; for the entire diary entry see Tyler Dennett, Editor, Lincoln and the Civil War in the Diaries and Letter of John Hay, p. 154.

Lieutenant-Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes to Sardis Birchard, August 8, 1862

Camp Green Meadows, Mercer County, Virginia,
August 8, 1862.

Dear Uncle: — . . . . I have not yet decided as to the Seventy-ninth Regiment. I would much prefer the colonelcy of this [regiment, the Twenty-third], of course. At the same time there are some things which influence me strongly in favor of the change. I shall not be surprised if the anxiety to have the colonel present to aid in recruiting will be such that I shall feel it my duty to decline. You know I can't get leave of absence until my commission is issued, and the commission does not issue until the regiment is full. By this rule, officers in the field are excluded. I shall leave the matter to take care of itself for the present.

We have had a good excitement the last day or two. A large force, about two thousand, with heavy artillery and cavalry, have been attacking the positions occupied by the Twenty-third. They cannonaded Major Comly at the ferry four and one-half miles from here, and a post I have at the ford three and one-half miles from here, on Wednesday. Tents were torn and many narrow escapes made, but strangely enough nobody on our side was hurt. With our long-range muskets, the enemy soon found they were likely to get the worst of it.

The same evening our guard-tent was struck by lightning. Eight men were knocked senseless, cartridge boxes, belted to the men, were exploded, and other frightful things, but all are getting well.

The drafting pleases me. It looks as if [the] Government was in earnest. All things promise well. I look for the enemy to worry us for the next two months, but after that our new forces will put us in condition to begin the crushing process. I think another winter will finish them. Of course there will be guerrilla and miscellaneous warfare, but the power of the Rebels will, I believe, go under if [the] Government puts forth the power which now seems likely to be gathered.

I am as anxious as you possibly can be to set up in Spiegel Grove, and to begin things. It is a pity you are in poor health, but all these things we need not grieve over. Don't you feel glad that I was in the first regiment originally raised for the three years service in Ohio, instead of waiting till this time, when a man volunteers to escape a draft? A man would feel mean about it all his days.

I wish you were well enough to come out here. You would enjoy it to the top of town. Many funny things occur in these alarms from the enemy. Three shells burst in our assistant surgeon's tent. He was out but one of them killed a couple of live rattlesnakes he had as pets! One fellow, an old pursy fifer, a great coward, came puffing up to my tent from the river and began to talk extravagantly of the number and ferocity of the enemy. Said I to him, “And, do they shoot their cannon pretty rapidly?” “Oh, yes,” said he, “very rapidly indeed — they had fired twice before I left the camp”!

It is very hot these days but our men are still healthy. We have over eight hundred men, and only about ten in hospital here

Sincerely,
R. B. Hayes.

P. S. — Wasn't you pleased with the Morgan raid into Kentucky? I was in hopes they would send a shell or two into Cincinnati. It was a grand thing for us.

S. Birchard.

SOURCE: Charles Richard Williams, editor, Diary and Letters of Rutherford Birchard Hayes, Volume 2, p. 319-21

Diary of 1st Sergeant John L. Ransom: February 26, 1864

Rather cold, almost spring. Guards unusually strict. Hendryx was standing near the window, and I close by him, looking at the high, ten story tobacco building, when the guard fired at us. The ball just grazed Hendryx's head and lodged in the ceiling above; all we could do to prevent Hendryx throwing a brick at the guard.

SOURCE: John L. Ransom, Andersonville Diary, p. 36

Brigadier-General William F. Bartlett to Francis W. Palfrey, December 15, 1865

December 15. Yesterday we walked for an hour and a half on the parade, and drove in the afternoon. It is very crowded and gay here, and you see all the swell turnouts.

But I must cut this short, or you will be bored. Thanks for your nice letter, received last week. I am delighted to know that you are so nicely “fixed” for the winter. Agnes sends love to your wife, and says your description of your cozy housekeeping just makes us want to go and do likewise. Write me when you have time. Letters from home are a great treat, and impatiently looked for from week to week.

With a merry Christmas and happy New Year, and with much love from both to both, ever yours,

Frank B.

We shall be in Paris by New Year's.

SOURCE: Francis Winthrop Palfrey, Memoir of William Francis Bartlett, p. 170-1

Diary of John Beauchamp Jones: March 21, 1863

The snow is nearly a foot deep this morning, as it continued to fall all night, and is falling still. It grows warmer, however.

But we now learn that the Indianola was destroyed in the Mississippi by the officers, upon the appearance of a simulated gun boat sent down, without a crew! This was disgraceful, and some one should answer for it.

Col. Godwin writes from King and Queen County, that many of the people there are deserting to the enemy, leaving their stock, provisions, grain, etc., and he asks permission to seize their abandoned property for the use of the government. Mr. Secretary Seddon demands more specific information before that step be taken. He intimates that they may have withdrawn to avoid conscription.

SOURCE: John Beauchamp Jones, A Rebel War Clerk's Diary at the Confederate States Capital, Volume 1, p. 277-8

Diary of 1st Lieutenant Lemuel A. Abbott: Monday, September 5, 1864

Was aroused this morning at 4 o'clock by the Vermont brigade. It moved round on to our right in the night and built works to protect our right flank; rained hard last night; got very wet; was relieved from picket by the Fourteenth New Jersey; no skirmishing to-day. The enemy has evidently fallen back to Winchester. It's quite cloudy.

SOURCE: Lemuel Abijah Abbott, Personal Recollections and Civil War Diary, 1864, p. 144

Diary of Sergeant Major Luman Harris Tenney: Tuesday, February 3, 1863

Commenced taking care of my cream mare. Thede tried her gait. We cleaned her off nicely. Was kept quite busy all day straightening accounts in commissary. A cold, chilly, piercing day. Suffered considerably. Seems good to have Thede with me.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 55

Diary of Sergeant Major Luman Harris Tenney: Wednesday, February 4, 1863

Let Thede go to town on my mare. Read “Tom Brown.” Became quite interested. There seems so much reality in all the sports and tricks. In the evening went to tactic school at Co. K's quarters. Like it well.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 55

Diary of Sergeant Major Luman Harris Tenney: Thursday, February 5, 1863

Continued the reading of “Tom Brown.” The talk of consolidation is making the boys very much dissatisfied. There will be more deserters. In the evening recited my lesson.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 55

Diary of Sergeant Major Luman Harris Tenney: Friday, February 6, 1863

Called at the captain's quarters. Told me Fannie Hudson was coming that day at noon. Am glad. Would I could see Will, too.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 55

Diary of Sergeant Major Luman Harris Tenney: Saturday, February 7, 1863

After my morning work, issuing bread and beef and tending to my horse, Thede went to town for the girls. Called at Capt. N.'s quarters in the P. M. to see them. Good time. No lesson in the evening, so many of the boys away at theatre. I went over to Chester's. Played checkers and dominoes.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 55

Diary of Sergeant Major Luman Harris Tenney: Sunday, February 8, 1863

Spent the day very quietly in camp. Finished “Tom Brown” and read some in “Sermons on the New Life,” and in my Bible. Archie called for me to go to town with him, but I had some invoices, etc., to make out, so stayed in camp.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 56

Diary of 1st Lieutenant John S. Morgan: Wednesday, June 7, 1865

On duty as officer of guard A. M. cos D. G. F & A. of 33d & 4 cos of 28th get off. P. M. balance of 33d off. I left on board with detail to guard & transfer Regt property. Sea rough Bellevedeere in

SOURCE: “Diary of John S. Morgan, Company G, 33rd Iowa Infantry,” Annals of Iowa, 3rd Series, Vol. 13, No. 8, April 1923, p. 605

Diary of 1st Lieutenant John S. Morgan: Thursday, June 8, 1865

Rained most of night & nearly all day, the lighter run along side but seas too rough to do anything, Scaomp strikes the bar in trying the channel.

SOURCE: “Diary of John S. Morgan, Company G, 33rd Iowa Infantry,” Annals of Iowa, 3rd Series, Vol. 13, No. 8, April 1923, p. 605

Diary of 1st Lieutenant John S. Morgan: Friday, June 9, 1865

Sea calmer, schooner alongside 1. co of 28th embark, and over about ½ Regt Baggaged & ½ detail goes over, P. M. The Lighter comes alongside & takes the balance of 28th except a small detail. Morgoritter arrives at 12, M. About 2 P. M. a schooner is towed alongside, our orders to load everything on her. get the horses. Regt stores & part of Com stores aboard, 3 P. M. the lighter brings out 50 passengers 15 ladies amongst them. The Hudson arrives with troops, sky cloudy & capt talks much of danger of a norther

SOURCE: “Diary of John S. Morgan, Company G, 33rd Iowa Infantry,” Annals of Iowa, 3rd Series, Vol. 13, No. 8, April 1923, p. 605

Diary of 1st Lieutenant John S. Morgan: Saturday, June 10, 1865

Soon as breakfast over finish loading com. stores. No of blls bread lost by breaking open at 2, P. M. turned in, land on the island of Brazos at the city of Brazos Santiago about 4 small houses, all the water used is condensed. ration 1 gal per day, plenty of fish, hear the sad news that the Col Lt Col & adjt of Regt were bathing, the tide carried them out, the Lt Col was saved by his servt but the Col & Adjt were lost

SOURCE: “Diary of John S. Morgan, Company G, 33rd Iowa Infantry,” Annals of Iowa, 3rd Series, Vol. 13, No. 8, April 1923, p. 605

Diary of 1st Lieutenant John S. Morgan: Sunday, June 11, 1865

Always a cool breeze. Some talk about a battery Max, recd of the Rebs alfter their surrender, hear it is all right now, rained a little during the day, talk of moving our Brig. to mouth of Rio grande.

SOURCE: “Diary of John S. Morgan, Company G, 33rd Iowa Infantry,” Annals of Iowa, 3rd Series, Vol. 13, No. 8, April 1923, p. 605

Thursday, March 23, 2017

William A. Phillips to John Brown [alias James Smith], June 24, 1857

Lawrence, K. T., June 24, 1857.

My Dear Friend, — I received your letter, dated from Ohio the 9th instant, a few days ago. I fear I shall not be able to meet you at Tabor. I have just received (on the 13th) the task of superintending and taking the census for the State election. As means are limited, those who can must do this. I have therefore assumed the task, which will require my presence and most active efforts until the 15th of July. I have tried to arrange it so as to get off for a week; but it is impossible without a sacrifice of duty. Should it be so, or if no one else can go, I will still try. Holmes I have seen; he is busy, and will not be able to come up. Several of those you mentioned are gone, and others cannot go to Tabor. I sent a message to Osawatomie, and enclosed your letter to Mr. Adair; told him that Holmes and the others could not go, and urged that some go from Osawatomie, if possible. I have not yet heard from him. I start to Osawatomie when I finish this; I will make it on my round, appointing deputies and taking the census. Two young men from this place have promised me that they will go if possible; but they have no horses, and horses cannot be hired for such a journey. I still hope to have a few friends at Tabor to meet you in a week.

As to your future action, for fear I should be prevented from going to meet you, let me say I think you should come into Kansas, provided you desire to do so. I think it will be our duty to see you protected. There is no necessity for active military preparations at this time; but so far as you have the elements of defence at your command, I think they are safer with you than with any one else. Your old claim has, I believe, been jumped. If you do not desire to contest it, let me suggest that you make a new settlement at some good point, of which you will be the head. Lay off a town and take claims around it. You would thus rally round you a class of useful men, who could be prepared for an emergency at the same time that they furthered their own interests, which they have a right to do. Any information I could render as to the best sites or otherwise you may cheerfully call upon. Should I not be able to come to meet you, I hope at least to see you shortly after you enter. I have not time to detail the present condition of the Free-State party.

Until I see you, adieu. Respectfully,
William A. Phillips.
James Smith.1
_______________

1 Indorsed by John Brown: “William A. Phillips. Requires no reply. No. 1.” The tone of this letter shows how Brown was regarded in Kansas as the custodian of arms, — which, of course, was the “furniture” mentioned by Mr. Whitman.

SOURCE: Franklin B. Sanborn, The Life and Letters of John Brown, p. 397-8

Diary of Gideon Welles: Wednesday, May 13, 1863

The last arrival from England brings Earl Russell's speech on American affairs. Its tone and views are less offensive than some things we have had, and manifest a dawning realization of what must follow if England persists in her unfriendly policy. In his speech, Earl R., in some remarks relative to the opinions of the law officers of the Crown on the subject of mails captured on blockade-runners, adroitly quotes the letter of Seward to me on the 31st of October, and announces that to be the policy of the United States Government, and the regulation which governs our naval officers. It is not the English policy, nor a regulation which they adopt, reciprocate, or respect, but the tame, flat concession of the Secretary of State, made without authority or law. The statement of Earl R. is not correct. No such orders as he represents have issued from the Navy Department. Not a naval officer or district attorney has ever been instructed to surrender the mails as stated, nor is there a court in the United States which would regard such instructions, if given, as good law. It is nothing more nor less than an attempted abandonment, an ignominious surrender, of our undoubted legal rights by a Secretary of State who knew not what he was about. The President may, under the influence of Mr. Seward, commit himself to this inconsiderate and illegal proceeding and direct such instructions to be issued, but if so, the act shall be his, not mine, and he will find it an unhappy error.

But Seward has been complimented in Parliament for giving away to our worst enemy his country's rights, — for an impertinent and improper intermeddling, or attempt to intermeddle, with and direct the action of another Department, and the incense which he has received will tickle his vanity.

Sumner tells me of a queer interview he had with Seward. The first part of the conversation was harmonious and related chiefly to the shrewd and cautious policy and management of the British Ministry, who carefully referred all complex questions to the law officers of Her Majesty's Government. It might have been a hint to Seward to be more prudent and considerate, and to take legal advice instead of pushing on, wordy and slovenly, as is sometimes done. Allusion was made to Mr. Adams and his unfortunate letter to Zerman.1 Our Minister, Mr. Adams, was spoken of as too reserved and retiring for his own and the general good. Sumner said, in justification and by way of excuse for him, that it would be pleasanter and happier for him if he had a Secretary of Legation whose deportment, manner, and social position were different, — if he were more affable and courteous, in short more of a gentleman, — for he could in that case make up for some of Mr. A.'s deficiencies. At this point Seward flew into a passion, and, in a high key, told Sumner he knew nothing of political (meaning party) claims and services, and accused him of a design to cut the throat of Charley Wilson, the Secretary of Legation at London. Sumner wholly disclaimed any such design or any personal knowledge of the man, but said he had been informed, and had no doubt of the fact, that it was the daily practice of Wilson to go to Morley's, seat himself in a conspicuous place, throw his legs upon the table, and, in coarse language, abuse England and the English. Whatever might be our grievances and wrong, this, Sumner thought, was not a happy method of correcting them, nor would such conduct on the part of the second officer of the Legation bring about kinder feelings or a better state of things, whereas a true gentleman could by suavity and dignity in such a position win respect, strengthen his principal, and benefit the country. These remarks only made Seward more violent, and louder in his declarations that Charley Wilson was a clever fellow and should be sustained.

I read to Attorney-General Bates the letters and papers in relation to mails on captured vessels, of which he had some previous knowledge. He complimented my letters and argument, and said my position was impregnable and the Secretary of State wholly and utterly wrong.

Mr. Seward sent me to-day a letter from Lord Lyons concerning the Mont Blanc and the Dolphin, and wished me to name some person at Key West to arbitrate on the former case, the vessel having been restored and the parties wanting damages. I named Admiral Bailey for this naval duty, but took occasion to reiterate views I have heretofore expressed, and especially in my letter yesterday that these matters belonged to the courts and not to the Departments.

Hear of no new move by Hooker. I am apprehensive our loss in killed and prisoners was much greater in the late battle than has been supposed.
_______________

1 Zerman was a Mexican in partnership with Howell, an American.

The firm fitted out a vessel to trade with Matamoras. Mr. Adams, being satisfied of their good faith, gave them assurances of immunity from interference on the part of the United States Navy, and this discrimination against Englishmen engaged ostensibly in the same trade, was sharply criticized in the British Parliament.

SOURCE: Gideon Welles, Diary of Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Navy Under Lincoln and Johnson, Vol. 1: 1861 – March 30, 1864, p. 299-302

Diary of John Hay: January 9, 1864

Cameron has written to the President that the entire Union force of the Pa. Legislature, House and Senate, have subscribed a request that the President will allow himself to be re-elected, and that they intend visiting Washington to present it. He says: — “I have kept my promise.”

The indications all look that way. The loud Lincoln men, who are useful only as weather gauges to show the natural drift of things, are laboring hard to prove themselves the original friends of the President. Mark Delahay is talking about the Chase plot to ruin him and Lincoln. He says Pomeroy is to be at the head of the new Frémont party that is soon to be placed in commission; and much of this. On the other hand, Wayne MacVeagh, who dined with me to-day, says that the strugglers now seem to get ahead of each other in the nomination. The New Hampshire occurrence startled the Union League of Philada. They saw their thunder stolen from their own arsenals. They fear their own endorsement will be passée before long, and are now casting about to get some arrangement for putting him in nomination at once.

Wayne told a very funny story about Forney and Cameron in conversation about politics on the train. Forney bibulously insisting that if he had beaten Cameron for the Senate, there would have been no war.

SOURCES: Clara B. Hay, Letters of John Hay and Extracts from Diary, Volume 1, p. 153-4; for the entire diary entry see Tyler Dennett, Editor, Lincoln and the Civil War in the Diaries and Letter of John Hay, p. 152-3.

Diary of Lieutenant-Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes: Friday, August 8, 1862

Camp Green Meadows, Friday.  — Captains Drake and Skiles of [the] Twenty-third and Captain Gilmore of the cavalry returned today. They brought fourteen head [of] good cattle got from Secesh. Captain Drake is very much irritated because he and Captain Sperry were not detailed on my recommendation to go on recruiting service, the reason given being that captains in the opinion of [the] general commanding, General Cox, ought not to be sent. Since that, a number of captains have been sent from this division. This looks badly. Captain Drake tenders his resignation “immediate and unconditional.” I requested the captain not to be too fast. He is impulsive and hasty, but gallant and brave to a fault, honorable and trustworthy. I prefer to send him on any dangerous service to any man I ever knew. I hope he will remain in the regiment if I do.

I ordered camp changed today to get rid of old leaves, soured ground, dirty tents, and the like. Have succeeded in getting more room for tents and more room for drill.

SOURCE: Charles Richard Williams, editor, Diary and Letters of Rutherford Birchard Hayes, Volume 2, p. 319

Diary of 1st Sergeant John L. Ransom: February 25, 1864

We divide the night up into four watches and take turns standing guard while the other three sleep, to protect ourselves from Captain Moseby's gang of robbers. We are all armed with iron slats pulled off the window casings. They are afraid to pitch in to us, as we are a stout crowd and would fight well for our worldly goods. We expect to take it before long. They are eyeing us rather sharp, and I guess will make an attack to-night. Very long days and more lonesome than when on the island. Got rations to-day, and the allowance did not half satisfy our hunger.

SOURCE: John L. Ransom, Andersonville Diary, p. 36

Brigadier-General William F. Bartlett to Francis W. Palfrey, December 14, 1865

Brighton, December 14, 1865.

Here we are at the Newport of England, in the height of the season, in comfortable apartments fronting on the Parade, where the world is continually passing and repassing. We are on the ground floor, have a parlor and dining-room in front, dressing-room and large bed-room in rear. We have been trying for rooms for two weeks, but everything is full. The Adamses have been staying down here, but went to town this week. We had a very kind note from Mrs. Adams yesterday, asking us to go there Friday, but we had taken these rooms and did not like to lose them. She had been expecting us down here, as I told Mr. Adams that we were coming as soon as we could get suitable apartments. Charlie Adams is with them now, and we shall see him when we return to town.

Yesterday, Frank, was the best day I have had in England. We went down to Aldershott, under charge of Conolly, on invitation of Lieutenant-general Sir James Scarlett. We found his carriage, etc., waiting at the station, and were soon at his house, where we received a cordial welcome from the old General. He is a fine looking old fellow, white whiskers and moustache, tall and stout. He won his K. C. B. in the Crimea. His staff were fine looking men, well decorated. The troops were all out in line, awaiting our arrival, so we started for the field at once. The General rode a stunning big thorough-bred, and we went in his carriage with two of Lady Abinger's nieces. The field of Aldershott extends for miles without a tree or fence, nothing but barren heath, with a fair division of hilly and level ground. Of course at this season of the year the ground was wet and soft in some places. The old General showed me his morning report before we went out, where I saw that out of 7,000 men he could only get out for work about 4,500, and he asked me if I had not experienced the same annoyance. We know just how to sympathize, don't we, Frank? You see our army is not the only one where your effective men are consumed by furloughs, details, extra duty, etc., etc. Sir James's carriage was allowed to drive inside the line of sentinels, and stand just in rear of the reviewing officers' post. The day, you must know, was perfect, the first sunny day I have seen in England. This long line of cavalry, horse and foot artillery, engineers, and infantry, all in their brilliant uniform, was no common sight to an American soldier. There were two regiments of Highlanders, which added color and effect to the picture. The General and staff started around the line, and the bands began each in turn, as with us, but, also, the commander of each brigade, with his staff, accompanied the General along the front of his own line, the commander of each regiment and troop and battery the same, which I think is a good plan, don't you? for a regimental or brigade commander likes to see how his men look and stand just as well as the commanding general. The engineers had their whole pontoon train out with them, the Division ambulances and wagons were drawn up, — in short, the Division was in perfect marching order, ready for a campaign. In marching past, the cavalry and artillery came first, alternating, then the engineers, then infantry. They marched by divisions, company officers on the flanks; only mounted officers saluted, and I noticed that the General returned the salute of each, but did not salute the colors as every other officer in the group did. The Highlanders did the best marching. I have seen as good in America. The bands of each brigade were massed in one, which stood opposite us while its brigade passed, and, as you can imagine, made great music. The cavalry band, which merely fell back a little while the infantry was passing, now came forward, as the cavalry was to pass again at trot. This was very good, the horses actually keeping step with the quick staccato movement. The saddles of the hussars and the harnesses of the artillery were beautiful to behold, the chains of steel were burnished so that they looked like silver. The guns were “browned” breach-loading Armstrong, three-inch. The pontoons and wagons went by, also, at trot, their equipments as perfect and the uniforms of the drivers as handsome as in the artillery. It was something that I wished many times that you were by my side to see with me. The General now gave his brigadiers and chiefs of artillery and cavalry a general idea of what he wanted done, and then, telling us how we could best see the movements, left us in charge of the provost marshal, who had a guard to keep spectators from interfering with the troops. Sir James's carriage, with our party, was inside this guard, and privileged to move about at will, so as not to be in the way of the troops. If I had known how it was to be, I should have gone prepared to ride, as the General had a horse ready for me. But we saw very well from the carriage. Front was changed to the rear, the cavalry sent off to the left to harass the flank of the enemy, a heavy skirmish line sent forward which opened fire at once, advancing in beautiful order, taking the different crests, which were quickly capped with artillery, opening as soon as it was in position, the first line and supports moving up, keeping their distances well, now moving to the right or left as imagined necessity required.

It was all so natural and so real, that I expected every minute to hear a bullet whiz by my ear, or a shell go screeching over my head. I saw one flaw, which of course I held my tongue about (but which the General himself spoke about and condemned afterwards); the pontoons were sent forward, ready to throw across a canal that intersects the field, and they were right up with the skirmish line without any support, and being very large and heavy and conspicuous, they would have been an easy mark for a good gunner, or have fallen an easy prey to a determined dash of cavalry, which could easily have broken through the skirmish line. The pontoons are unlike ours, — open wooden boats, — but are cylindrical buoys, about twenty feet long and four feet diameter, on which the timbers are laid, and being made of iron, air-tight, would be transformed into pepper-boxes by a clever gunner in no time in such an open country as that. However, the skirmishers cleared the way, and the pontoons were got into the water in safety, and the bridge very quickly laid, over which part of the infantry passed; the rest, and the artillery, which was all this time firing over our heads from the crests in our rear, crossed by a stone bridge farther to the right, the cavalry by one on the left. We went over the pontoon, which was very solid, sending the carriage around by the stone bridge on account of the horses. It took them about twenty-five minutes, I should think, to get the bridge ready for troops. The enemy (?) now was in full retreat, and a general advance was made, while the cavalry charged from the flank.

We drove around through the barracks, which were the picture of neatness, back to Sir James's to lunch. Lady Scarlett we found a nice, dignified old lady. We also found that after an early breakfast and a long morning, we were quite ready for the substantial lunch to which I presently handed in “my lady.” After lunch, Sir James spoke of the mistake of having those pontoons in such an exposed position, and I was pleased to find that I had seen it. He said I must go down there again in the spring, when he will have twice as many troops, and I shall only be too glad to do so. They were all very cordial and kind, and I don't remember a more enjoyable day. It only needed an enemy and ball cartridges, without the lunch and ladies, to make it like many disagreeable ones that we have seen. We had to go back to London to take the Brighton train, and got here very comfortably.

SOURCE: Francis Winthrop Palfrey, Memoir of William Francis Bartlett, p. 166-70

Diary of John Beauchamp Jones: March 20, 1863

The snow is eight inches deep this morning, and it is still falling fast.

Not a beggar is yet to be seen in this city of 100,000 inhabitants!

Hood's division, mostly Texans, whose march to the Rappahannock was countermanded when it was ascertained that the enemy had been beaten back across the river, were all the morning defiling through Main Street, in high spirits, and merrily snowballing each other. And these men slept last night out in the snow without tents! Can such soldiers be vanquished?

Yesterday Floyd's division of State troops were turned over to the Confederacy — only about 200!

We have no further particulars of the fight on the Rappahannock; we know, however, that the enemy were beaten, and that this snow-storm must prevent further operations for many days. Several Eastern Shore families, I learn, are about to return to their homes. This is no place for women and children, who have homes elsewhere. We are all on quarter-rations of meat, and but few can afford to buy clothing at the present prices.

SOURCE: John Beauchamp Jones, A Rebel War Clerk's Diary at the Confederate States Capital, Volume 1, p. 277

Diary of 1st Lieutenant Lemuel A. Abbott: Sunday, September 4, 1864

Got our line established about 10 o'clock last night; rained hard; got very wet; day has passed quietly; moved our skirmish line about fifty yards to the front this forenoon. The enemy appeared on the left of our division about dark and commenced skirmishing, but all's quiet at 9 o'clock p. m. Dr. Clark has been down to see us this afternoon. He's always welcome. It's cloudy and cool; will probably rain before morning.

SOURCE: Lemuel Abijah Abbott, Personal Recollections and Civil War Diary, 1864, p. 143

Diary of Sergeant Major Luman Harris Tenney: Wednesday January 28, 1863

Went to prayer meeting at nine. Had a nice fall at Goodrich's. Went to Minnie's and played chess. Ellie and Minnie came down. Played battledore. Good time. In the evening by invitation went to Libbie's. Small party. Had a very pleasant time. Pins and backgammon. Got home at 11, in bed by 12.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 54

Diary of Sergeant Major Luman Harris Tenney: Thursday January 29, 1863

Went to Minnie's at nine. Found E. and M. about to go to the skating pond. Went as far as shop. No ice. Went down by the mill with E. Ice good. Called at Chester's, Bigelow's, Ella Clark's and French's, Mrs. Kenaston's and Johnson's. In the evening saw Fannie. Went down to F. Henderson's. Bid F. goodbye at 9:30 P. M. Hard. Found Theodore at Prof. Ellis's. Heard them sing awhile, then home. Bed at twelve.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 55

Diary of Sergeant Major Luman Harris Tenney: Friday January 30, 1863

Concluded to wait until 2 P. M. Called with Thede at Maria's, Fannie H. and Fannie A.'s and said goodbye. At two rode out to Cleveland. Time for Holland's lecture. Ma and T. came on train. Lecture on "Fashion." Very good. Visited with Uncle and Aunt. Thede went to the Bazaar.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 55

Diary of Sergeant Major Luman Harris Tenney: Saturday January 31, 1863

We went to Camp Cleveland and saw the boys. Then to Auntie Jones' to dinner. Down to Alfred's, Mattie's and back to Uncle's. Then with Thede went to see Lizzie Cobb. Not at home. Called on Mrs. H. Cobb. A pleasant time. Off at 6:45. C. G. at the depot. Put up at the National for the night.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 55

Diary of Sergeant Major Luman Harris Tenney: Sunday, February 1, 1863

Columbus, Ohio. Went up to Melissa's after breakfast in the rain. N. there. Stayed to dinner. About 2 started out with N. in a drizzle for Camp Chase. Rather tires me walking. Enjoyed rehearsing my good visit home with Ma, F. and other friends.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 55