Sunday, May 1, 2016

Diary of Judith Brockenbrough McGuire: Sunday Night, April 16, 1865

The Episcopal churches being closed, we went to the Rev. Dr. Hoge's church. The rector was absent; he went off, to be in Confederate lines ; but the Rev. Dr. Read, whose church is in ruins, occupied the pulpit.

Strange rumours are afloat to-night. It is said, and believed, that Lincoln is dead, and Seward much injured. As I passed the house of a friend this evening, she raised the window and told me the report. Of course I treated it as a Sunday rumour; but the story is strengthened by the way which the Yankees treat it. They, of course, know all about it, and to-morrow's papers will reveal the particulars. I trust that, if true, it may not be by the hand of an assassin, though it would seem to fulfil the warnings of Scripture. His efforts to carry out his abolition theories have caused the shedding of oceans of Southern blood, and by man it now seems has his blood been shed. But what effect will it hare on the South? We may have much to fear. Future events will show! This event has made us wild with excitement and speculation.

General Lee has returned. He came unattended, save by his staff — came without notice, and without parade; but he could not come unobserved; as soon as his approach was whispered, a crowd gathered in his path, not boisterously, but respectfully, and increasing rapidly as he advanced to his home on Franklin Street, between 8th and 9th, where, with a courtly bow to the multitude, he at once retired to the bosom of his beloved family. When I called in to see his high-minded and patriotic wife, a day or two after the evacuation, she was busily engaged in her invalid's chair, and very cheerful and hopeful. “The end is not yet,” she said, as if to cheer those around her; “Richmond is not the Confederacy.” To this we all most willingly assented, and felt very much gratified and buoyed by her brightness. I have not had the heart to visit her since the surrender, but hear that she still is sanguine, saying that “General Lee is not the Confederacy,” and that there is “life in the old land yet.” He is not the Confederacy; but our hearts sink within us when we remember that he and his noble army are now idle, and that we can no longer look upon them as the bulwark of our land. He has returned from defeat and disaster with the universal and profound admiration of the world, having done all that skill and valour could accomplish. The scenes at the surrender were noble and touching. General Grant's bearing was profoundly respectful; General Lee's as courtly and lofty as the purest chivalry could require. The terms, so honourable to all parties, being complied with to the letter, our arms were laid down with breaking hearts, and tears such as stoutest warriors may shed. “Woe worth the day!”

SOURCE: Judith W. McGuire, Diary of a Southern Refugee, During the War, p. 355-7

Diary of Judith Brockenbrough McGuire: Tuesday Night, April 18, 1865

I try to dwell as little as possible on public events. I only feel that we have no country, no government, no future. I cannot, like some others, look with hope on Johnston's army. He will do what he can; but ah, what can he do? Our anxiety now is that our President and other public men may get off in safety. O God! have mercy upon them and help them! For ourselves, like the rest of the refugees, we are striving to get from the city. The stereotyped question when we meet is, “When and where are you going?” Our country relatives have been very kind. My brother offers us an asylum in his devastated home at W. While there we must look around for some other place, in which to build up a home for our declining years. Property we have none — all gone. Thank God, we have our faculties; the girls and myself, at least, have health. Mr. —— bears up under our difficulties with the same hopeful spirit which he has ever manifested. “The Lord will provide,” is still his answer to any doubt on our part. The Northern officials offer free tickets to persons returning to their homes — alas! to their homes! How few of us have homes! Some are confiscated; others destroyed. The families of the army and navy officers are here. The husbands and sons are absent, and they remain with nothing to anticipate and nothing to enjoy. To-day I met a friend, the wife of a high official, whose hospitality I have often enjoyed in one of the most elegant residences in Virginia, which has been confiscated and used as a hospital for “contrabands.” Our conversation naturally turned on our prospects. Hearing where we were going, she replied, “I have no brother, but when I hear from my husband and son, I shall accept the whole-souled invitation of a relative in the country, who has invited me to make his house my home; but,” she added, as her beautiful eyes filled with tears, “when are our visits to end? We can't live with our ruined relatives, and when our visits are over, what then? And how long must our visits of charity last? The question was too sad; neither of us could command our voices, and we parted in silence and tears.

SOURCE: Judith W. McGuire, Diary of a Southern Refugee, During the War, p. 357-8

Diary of Sarah Morgan: Wednesday, February 3, 1864

Last night we were thrown into the most violent state of commotion by the unexpected entrance of Captain Bradford. He has been brought here a prisoner, from Asphodel, where he has been ever since the surrender of Port Hudson, and taking advantage of his tri-weekly parole, his first visit was naturally here, as he has no other friends.

Poor creature, how he must have suffered! The first glance at his altered face where suffering and passion have both left their traces unmistakably since we last met, and the mere sight of his poor lame leg, filled my heart with compassion.

*          *          *          *          *          *          *          *          *          *

How he hates Mr. Halsey! I could not forego the pleasure of provoking him into a discussion about him, knowing how they hated each other. He would not say anything against him; understand, that as a gentleman and a companion, Mr. Halsey was his warmest and best friend; there was no one he admired more; but he must say that as a soldier, he was the worst he had ever seen — not that he was not as brave and gallant a man as ever lived, but he neglected his duties most shamefully while visiting Linwood so constantly, eluding the sentinels daily as he asked for neither pass nor permission, and consulting only his inclinations instead of his superior officers or his business. And that last night at Linwood, when he absented himself without leave, why could he not have signified to him, his Captain, that he wished to say good-bye, instead of quietly doing as he pleased? When the Colonel sent for a report of the number of men, quantity of forage and ammunition, etc., and it was discovered that John Halsey was absent without leave, with the books locked up and the keys in his pocket — even after this lapse of time, the fire flashed through the ice as the Captain spoke. Sergeant Halsey, I am sorry for you when you reported yourself next day! All the fun that could have been crowded into an evening at Linwood could not have repaid you for the morning's scene. And after all, what was it beyond very empty pleasure, with a great deal of laughter? He could have dispensed with it just as well. Looking back, I congratulate myself on being the only one who did not ask him to stay.

SOURCE: Sarah Morgan Dawson, A Confederate Girl's Diary, p. 424-6

Diary of Lieutenant-Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes, Monday Morning, March 24, 1862

It is snowing still. What a climate! This storm began Wednesday last. . . .

Captain Drake returned. He was very lucky — caught fifteen bushwhackers, captured twelve horses, eighteen rifles and muskets, fifteen hundred pounds bacon, ten sacks flour, six canoes; destroyed the Rebel headquarters and returned safely. Abram Bragg and Wm. C. Richmond with fifteen or twenty Union men joined them and acted as guides, etc., etc.

SOURCE: Charles Richard Williams, editor, Diary and Letters of Rutherford Birchard Hayes, Volume 2, p. 217

Roster of Company E, 11th Iowa Infantry

JOHN W. ALBIN—Age, 18; residence, Newport; nativity, Iowa; enlisted, March 7, 1864; mustered, March 7, 1864; private; wounded, June 15, 1864; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

SAMUEL ALBIN—Age, 18; residence Linn county; nativity, Iowa; enlisted, April 9, 1864; mustered, April 11, 1864; private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

ROBERT ALEXANDER—Age, 22; residence, Tipton; nativity, Ireland; enlisted, September 2, 1862; mustered, September 12, 1862; private; mustered out, June 2, 1865.

WILLIAM ALEXANDER—Age 22; residence, Tipton; nativity, Ireland; enlisted, September 21, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted, January 25, 1864; private; killed in battle, June 15, 1864.

ALBERT ALLEE—Age, 18; residence, Tipton; nativity, Indiana; enlisted, September 21, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; private; wounded, June 21, 1864; mustered out expiration of term, October 17, 1864.

JEREMIAH A. ARGO—Age, 18; residence. Springfield; nativity, Ohio; enlisted, April 20, 1864; mustered, April 20, 1864; private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

THOMAS ARMSTRONG—Age, 18; residence, Tipton: nativity, Pennsylvania; enlisted, September 23, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted January 1, 1864; private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

JOHN L. AYERS—Age, 21; residence, Mechanicsvllle; nativity, Ohio; enlisted, October 10, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; mustered out expiration of term, October 17, 1864.

SAMUEL BAIN—Age, 21; residence, Cedar Bluff; nativity, Ohio; enlisted, September 28, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted, January 1, 1864; private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

EGBERT BANKS—Age, 25; residency, Davenport; nativity. New York; enlisted, October 6, 1864; mustered, October 6, 1864; private: mustered out, July 15, 1865.

CORYDON BARKER—Age, 28; residence, Grinnell; nativity, Kentucky; enlisted, September 23, 1864; mustered, September 23, 1864; private; discharged for disabilities. May 10, 1865.

WILLIAM BARRETT—Age, 20; residency, Cambridge; nativity, Maine; enlisted, September 13, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran: reenlisted, January 1, 1864; private; 4th Corporal January 1, 1865; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

Fred BARTIMER—Age, 19; residence, Davenport; nativity, Germany; enlisted, October 3, 1864; mustered, October 4, 1864; private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

JOHN R. or W. BATDERP—Age, 30; residence, Tipton; nativity, Pennsylvania; enlisted, September 14, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861: private; 4th Corporal December 12, 1861; discharged for disabilities, July 25, 1862.

GEORGE BERRIMAN—Age, 21; residence, Tipton; nativity, Ohio; enlisted, September 9, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted, January 1, 1864; private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

MONROE S. BLAZER—Age, 21; residence, Springfield; nativity, Virginia; enlisted, March 2, 1864; mustered, March 2, 1864; private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

JOHN W. BOLTON—Age, 18; residence, Tipton; nativity, Iowa; enlisted, September 21, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; private: promoted, 4th Corporal September 10, 1862; discharged for disabilities, March 9, 1863.

BENJAMIN BOSSERT—Age, 18; residence, Tipton; nativity, Pennsylvania; enlisted, October 1, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted, January 1, 1864: private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

PETER R. BRADSHAW—Age, 19; residence, Tipton, nativity, Iowa; enlisted, September 28, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; reenlisted, January 1, 1864; private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

ANDREW BRIDGER—Age, 24; residence. Tipton: nativity. West Virginia; enlisted, March 3, 1864; mustered, March 3, 1864; private; discharged for disabilities, May 26, 1865.

ABRAHAM BROWN—Age, 34; residence, Tipton; nativity, Pennsylvania: enlisted, October 1, 1861; mustered October 5, 1861; private; promoted, wagoner; died of disease, January 2, 1864.

ASA S. BRUNSON—age, 33; residence, Tipton; nativity, Ohio; enlisted, September 30, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted, January 1, 1864; private; wounded, September 5, 1864; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

WILLIAM H. BUCK—Age, 25; residency, Davenport; nativity, Ohio; enlisted, October 7, 1864; mustered, October 7, 1864; private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

JOHN R. BUCKMAN—Age, 18; residence, Le Claire; nativity, Illinois; enlisted, August 26, 1861; mustered, October 15, 1861; private; killed in battle, April 6, 1862.

HENRY L. CANFIELD—Age, 22; residence, Davenport; nativity, Indiana; enlisted, September 28, 1864; mustered, September 28, 1864; private; mustered out, June 2, 1865.

ALFRED CAREY—Age, 25; residency, Tipton; nativity. New York; enlisted, August 20, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; office, 3d Sergeant; 2d Lieutenant April 7, 1862; 1st Lieutenant October 1, 1862; wounded, June 15, 1864; died of wounds, July 25, 1864.

WASHINGTON CARL—Age, 23; residence, Tipton; nativity, Iowa; enlisted September 28, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted, January 1, 1864; private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

NATHAN CHASE—Age, 18; residence, Tipton; nativity, Illinois; enlisted, September 16, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted, January 1, 1864; private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

WILLIAM CHOWIN—Age, 39; residency, Davenport; nativity, England; enlisted, October 7, 1864; mustered, October 7, 1864; private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

ELMORE CHRISMAN—Age, 25; residence, Tipton; nativity, Ohio; enlisted, September 28, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; private; wounded, April 6, 1862; discharged for disabilities, December 2, 1862.

MAJOR CHRISTMAS—Age, 38; residence, Tipton; nativity, England; enlisted. September 20, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted, January 1, 1861; private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

JOEL H. CLARK—age, 24; residence, Ireland; nativity. New York; enlisted, August 20, 1861: mustered, October 5, 1861; 1st Sergeant; transferred, Inv. Corps March 15, 1864; no record.

JOHN F. COMPTON—Age, 36: residence, Ireland; nativity, England; enlisted. October 5, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; 1st Lieutenant October 5, 1861; killed in battle, April 6, 1862.

DWIGHT D. COMSTOCK—Age, 36; residence, Davenport; nativity, New York; enlisted, September 21, 1864; mustered, September 21, 1364; private; mustered out, June 2, 1865.

CHARLES CORRELL—Age, 20; residence, Davenport; nativity, Ohio; enlisted, September 28, 1864; mustered, September 28, 1864; private; mustered out, June 2, 1865.

GEORGE CROAK—Age, 20; residence, Le Claire; nativity, Pennsylvania; enlisted, August 26, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; private; killed in battle, April 6. 1862.

WILLIAM CROSS—Age, 25; residence, Tipton; nativity. New York; enlisted, September 20, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; private; killed in battle, July 5, 1864.

ORRIN CULVER—Age, 26; residence, Grinnell; nativity, Ohio; Enlisted, September 23, 1864; mustered, September 23, 1864; private; mustered out, June 2, 1865.

GEORGE CUSH—Age, 25; residence, Cedar Rapids; nativity, Germany; enlisted, August 20, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted, January 1, 1864; private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

JOHN M. DANIELS—Age, 26; residence, Tipton; nativity. New York; enlisted, September 24, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; 1st Corporal; discharged for disabilities, October 13, 1862.

SYLVESTER DANIELS—Age, 33; residency, Inland; nativity. New York; enlisted, August 20, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted, January 1, 1864; drummer; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

FERDINAND DAVIS—Age, 22; residence, Davenport: nativity, Indiana; enlisted, September 22, 1864; mustered, September 22, 1864; private; mustered out, June 2, 1865.

PATRICKS DEMPSEY—Age, 20; residence, Davenport; nativity, Canada; enlisted, September 23, 1864; mustered, September 23, 1864; private; deserted, November 13, 1864.

JOHN A. Dickson —Age, 19; residence, Davenport; nativity, Maine; enlisted, October 4, 1864; mustered, October 4, 1864; private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

LEROY DOUGLAS—Age, p residency, Cedar County; nativity, Pennsylvania; enlisted, September 30, 1861; mustered, October 5. 1861; veteran; reenlisted, January 23, 1864; private; wounded, June 15, 1864; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

THEODORE DOUGLAS—Age, 18; residence, Tipton; nativity. Pennsylvania; enlisted, September 24, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; private; no record.

ALEXANDER G. DOWNING—Age, 18; residence. Inland; nativity, Indiana; enlisted, August 20, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted, January 1, 1864; private; 6th Corporal March 1, 1864; 5th Corporal; 4th Sergeant January 1, 1865; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

DAVID DRAUCKER—Age, 23; residence, Tipton; nativity, Pennsylvania; enlisted, August 20, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted, January 1, 1864; private; fifer; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

LORENZO D. DURBIN—Age, 35; residence, Tipton; nativity, Ohio; mustered, October 5, 1861; 2d Lieutenant September 22, 1861; 1st Lieutenant April 7, 1862; resigned, September 28, 1862.

JOHN W. DWIGGANS—Age, 19; residence, Tipton; nativity, Ohio; enlisted, September 23, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; private; wounded, April 6, 1862; died of wounds, May 7, 1862.

WILLIAM DWIGGANS—Age, 19; residence, Tipton; nativity, Iowa; enlisted, September 23, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; private; died of disease, December 28, 1861.

CHARLES EDDY—Age, 25; residence, Davenport; nativity, Canada; enlisted. October 3, 1864; mustered, October 3, 1864; private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

GEORGE W. EICHER—Age, 22; residence, Woodbridge; nativity, Ohio; enlisted, September 23, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; private; mustered out expiration of term, October 17, 1864.

LEWIS ELSEFFER—Age, 18; residence, Woodbridge; nativity, New York; enlisted, September 12, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted, January 1, 1864; private; 6th Corporal; 4th Corporal January 1, 1864; 3d Corporal May 1, 1864; 1st Corporal January 1, 1865; mustered out, July 26, 1865.

JOHN W. ESHER—Age, 25; residence, Woodbridge; nativity, Pennsylvania; enlisted, September 23, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted, January 23, 1864; wounded, June 25, 1864; discharged for disabilities, March 20, 1865.

WILLIAM ESHER —Age, 23;  residency. Inland; nativity, Pennsylvania; enlisted, September 20, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

William C. FALLS—Age, 33; residence, Tipton; nativity, Virginia; enlisted, August 30, 1862; mustered, August 30, 1862; mustered out, June 2, 1865.

JOHN FERREN—Age, 24; residence, Davenport; nativity, Ireland; enlisted, October 11, 1864; mustered, October 11, 1864; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

FRANK FISHER—Enlisted, October 5, 1861; rejected by mustering officer.

DEAN FORD—Age, 23; residency, Tipton; nativity, Indiana; enlisted, September 21, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted, January 1, 1864; private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

JOHN FORD—Age, 23; residency, Tipton; nativity, Indiana; enlisted, September 14, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; private; wounded, June 15, 1864: mustered out expiration of term, October 17, 1864.

JAMES FOSSETT—Age, 21; residence, Inland; nativity, Ohio; enlisted, September 26, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; 6th Corporal; discharged for disabilities, October 17, 1862.

HIRAM FRANK—Age, 42; residence, Tipton; nativity. New York: enlisted, September 24, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted, January 1, 1864; 3d Corporal; 6th Sergeant October 16, 1882; 4th Sergeant May 1, 1864; 2d Sergeant November 1, 1864; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

GOTTHES JOHN FREDERICK—Age, 18; Residency, Davenport: nativity, Germany; enlisted October 7, 1864; mustered, October 7, 1864; private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

ALLEN FRINK—Age, 22; residence, Tipton; nativity, New York; enlisted, September 26, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; private; wounded, April 6, 1862; no further record.

CARLTON FRINK—Age, 18; residence, Tipton, nativity, New York; enlisted, September 26, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; private; killed in battle, April 6, 1862.

WILLIAM H. GREEN—Age, 21; residence. Tipton; nativity, Ohio; enlisted, August 20, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted. January 1, 1864; private; 5th Corporal January 1, 1865; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

THOMAS M. HAINES—Age, 24; residence. Tipton; nativity. New York; enlisted, September 21, 1861; mustered, October 5. 1861; private; killed in battle, April 6. 1862.

JOHN W. HARDIN—Age, 20; residency, Jefferson City; nativity, Missouri; enlisted, December 19, 1861; mustered, December 19, 1861; private; hospital June 30, no record.

HARRISON HARRICE—Age, 25; residency, Tipton; nativity, Maryland; enlisted, September 24, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; private; discharged for disabilities, July 14, 1862.

PITT B. HARRINGTON—Age, 21; residence, Tipton; nativity, Michigan; enlisted, September 17, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted, January 1, 1864; private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

ABNER H. HATCH—Age, 25; residence. Tipton; nativity. New York; enlisted, September 14, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; private; discharged for disabilities, August 13. 1862.

LEWIS P. HAZEN—Age, 30; residence, Davenport; nativity, Ohio; enlisted, September 28, 1864; mustered, September 28, 1864; private; mustered out, June 16, 1865.

NICODEMUS D. HENRY—Age, 19; residence. Cedar County; nativity, Ohio; enlisted, April 19, 1864; mustered, April 19, 1864; private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

AUGUSTUS F. HERRICK—Age, 19; residency, Davenport; nativity. New York; enlisted, October 8, 1864; mustered, October 8, 1864; private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

JOHN HILTON—Age, 18; residence, Davenport; nativity, Missouri; enlisted, April 25, 1864; mustered, April 27, 1864; private; wounded, July 5, 1864, and September 2, 1864; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

ROBERT L. HILTON—Rejected by mustering officer October 5, 1861.

DAVID HOBAUGH—Age, 21; residence, Toronto; nativity, Indiana; enlisted, September 17, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; prisoner, October 4, 1862; reenlisted, January 1, 1864; private; killed in battle, July 20, 1864.

DAVID HUFF—Age, 21; residence, Inland; nativity, Indiana; enlisted, August 20, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted, January 1, 1864; private; 2d Corporal; 1st Corporal May 1, 1864; wounded, August 12, 1864; died of wounds, August 23, 1864.

CHARLES J. JOHNSON—Age, 22; residence, Mechanicsvllle; nativity. Ohio; enlisted, October 5, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; private; died of disease, November 25, 1863.

FRANK JOHNSON—Age, 19; residency, Tipton; enlisted, October 5, 1861: mustered, October 5, 1861; reenlisted January 1, 1864; private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

JOHN C. JOHNSON—Age 18: residence. Marshall County; nativity, Ohio; enlisted, March 23, 1864; mustered, March 23, 1864; private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

JOHN KINNAN—Age, 22; residence, Tipton: nativity, Pennsylvania; enlisted, September 16, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted, January 1, 1864; private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

CRAVEN LANE—Age, 19; residence, Tipton; nativity, Indiana; enlisted, September 21, 1861: mustered, October 5, 1861; private; died of disease, January 3, 1862.

JOHN LETT—Age 19; residence, Tipton; nativity, Ohio; enlisted, September 21, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran: reenlisted, January 1, 1864; private; 3d Corporal January 1, 1865; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

AUGUSTUS LOBSHEIR—Age, 22; residence, Woodbridge: nativity. Germany; enlisted, September 25, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted, January 1, 1864; 5th Sergeant; 2d Sergeant October 1, 1862; Sergeant-Major November 1, 1864; discharged for disabilities, July 17, 1865.

JOEL LONG—Age, 22; residence, Cedar Bluff; nativity, Iowa; enlisted, September 30, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; Wagoner; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

PETER LONG—Age. 18; residence. Davenport; nativity, Ohio; enlisted. October 11, 1864; mustered, October 11, 1864; private; deserted, November 11, 1864.

HUGH C. McBlRNEY—Age, 21: residence. Mechanicsville; nativity. Canada; enlisted, September 26, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; private; 3d Corporal; mustered out expiration of term, October 17, 1864.

PADENARIN McCARTNEY—Age 39; residence, Tipton; nativity, Pennsylvania; enlisted, September 23, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; private, discharged—?1

THOMAS McCONNOLL—Age, 24; residence, Tipton; nativity, Pennsylvania: enlisted, August 26, 1861; mustered, October 5. 1861; private; wounded, June 15, 1864; mustered out, expiration of term, October 31, 1864.

EBENEZER McCULLOUGH—Age, 23: residence, Davenport; nativity. Ohio; enlisted, October 1, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; private; died of disease, August 3, 1862.

JOSEPH McKIBBEN—Age, 26; residence. Tipton; nativity, Ireland; enlisted, September 23, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; private; mustered out, expiration of term, April 1, 1865.

EZRA McLONEY—Age, 25; residence, Tipton: nativity, Ohio; enlisted, September 28, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; 4th Sergeant; killed in battle, April 6, 1862.

Samuel S. McLONEY—Age, 33; residence. Inland; nativity, Ohio; mustered, October 5, 1861: appointed Captain October 5, 1861; mustered out; expiration of term, October 26, 1864.

ROBERT McWILLIAM—Age, 36; residence, Grinnell; nativity, Scotland; enlisted, September 23, 1864; mustered, September 23, 1864; private; mustered out, July 2, 1865.

George G. MAIN—Age, 32; residence, Lowden; nativity. New York; enlisted, September 19, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; 4th Corporal; wounded, January 15, 1864; mustered out, July 8, 1865.

JAMES MARTIN—Age, 19; residence, LeClaire; nativity, Ohio; enlisted, August 26, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; prisoner, October 4, 1862; reenlisted, January 1, 1864; private; killed in battle, June 15, 1864.

SAMUEL METCALF—Age, 25; residence, Tipton; nativity, Vermont; enlisted, August 20, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; private; mustered out, expiration of term, October 17, 1864.

GEORGE MOONEY—Age, 22; residence, Tipton; nativity, Ohio; enlisted. September 9, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; private; mustered out, October 18, 1864.

JOHN D. MOORE—Age, 20; residence, Inland: nativity, Indiana; enlisted, March 23, 1864; mustered, March 23, 1864; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

DANIEL MOWERY—Age, 24; residence, Tipton; nativity, Pennsylvania; enlisted, September 20, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; discharged for disabilities, March 27, 1863.

MARION Z. MUSCHOTZY—Residence, Lookout Station, Mo.; enlisted, January 17, 1862; private; deserted, June, 1862.

FRANCIS NEESE—Age, 21; residence, Fort Dodge; nativity, Indiana; enlisted, September 28, 1864; mustered, September 28, 1864; private; mustered out, June 2, 1865.

REUBEN NEESE—Age, 26; residence, Fort Dodge; nativity, Indiana; enlisted, September 28, 1864; mustered, September 28, 1864; private; died of disease, March 2, 1865.

HENRY NEWANS—Age, 18; residence, Tipton; nativity, Canada; enlisted, September 23, 1861; mustered, October 5. 1861; veteran: reenlisted, January 1, 1864; private; wounded, July 22, 1864; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

JAMES NEWCOM—Age, 26; residence, Tipton; nativity, Pennsylvania; enlisted, October 17, 1861; mustered, October 17, 1861; veteran; reenlisted, January 1, 1864; private; 5th Corporal; 3d Corporal, January 1, 1863; 2d Corporal May 1, 1864; 3d Sergeant October 27, 1864; 1st Sergeant January 1, 1865; 2d Lieutenant July 29, 1865; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

FOREST NOWLIN—Age, 18; residence, Davenport; nativity, Pennsylvania; enlisted, October 10, 1864; mustered, October 10, 1864; private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

CULVER ORRIN—See Orrin Culver.

WILLIAM PATTEN—Age, 19; residence, Tipton; nativity, Indiana; enlisted, September 26, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted, January 1, 1864; private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

AARON PEARCE— Age, 21; residence, Tipton; nativity, Ohio; enlisted, September 22, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted, January 1, 1864; private; prisoner, missing in action July 22, 1864; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

ABRAHAM PENCE—Rejected October 5, 1861.

ALEXANDER RAGAN—Age, 18; residence, Tipton; nativity, Pennsylvania; enlisted, April 20, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; private; died of disease, September 9, 1863.

EBENEZER RANKIN—Age, 22; residence, Mechanicsville; nativity, Ireland; enlisted, September 26, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; private; 4th Corporal; mustered out expiration of term, October 17, 1864.

JAMES RANKIN—Age, 21; residence, Mechanicsville; nativity, Ireland; enlisted, September 26, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted, January 1, 1864; private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

EDWIN D. REAVES—Age, 21; residence, Tipton; nativity Ohio: enlisted. September 21, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; private; discharged for disabilities, April 15, 1863.

CHRISTIAN REIGART—Age, 18; residence, Tipton; nativity, Pennsylvania; enlisted, September 28, 1861; mustered October 5, 1861; private; discharged for disabilities, November 2, 1861.

JOHN T. RICE—Age, 22; residence, Lowden; nativity, Virginia; enlisted. September 17, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; private; died of disease, April 19, 1862.

ROSCOE R. ROYSTER—Age, 29; residence Fort Dodge; nativity, Iowa; enlisted, September 28, 1864; mustered, September 28, 1864; private; mustered out, June 2, 1865.

BURTIS H. RUMSEY—Age, 18; residence, Tipton; nativity, Ohio: enlisted. October 1, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted, January 1, 1864; private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

JAMES K. RUMSEY—Age 23; residence, Davenport; nativity, Ohio; enlisted, April 6, 1864; mustered April 6, 1864; private; died of disease, February 2, 1865.

JAMES RYON—-Age, 27; residence, Davenport; nativity, Canada; enlisted, October 12, 1864; mustered, October 12, 1864; private; deserted, November 13, 1864.

ALBERT B. SILES—Age, 23; residence, Wyoming; nativity, New York; enlisted, September 28, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; 7th Corporal; 2d Corporal; mustered out expiration of term, October 17, 1864.

GEORGE W. SIMMONS—Age, 22; residence, Tipton; nativity, Ohio; enlisted, September 21, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; private; wounded, April 6, 1862; died of wounds, May 12, 1862.

WILSON SIMMONS—Age, 21; residence, Tipton; nativity, Ohio; enlisted. September 23. 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; private; died of disease, April 15, 1862.

ADAM C. SMITH—Age, 29; residence, Tipton; nativity, New York; enlisted, August 20, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; private; died of disease, 1863.

JASON C. SPARKS—Age, 21: residence, Le Grand; nativity, Indiana; enlisted, March 31. 1864; mustered, March 31, 1864; private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

WILLIAM SPENCER—Age, 26; residence, Davenport: nativity, Pennsylvania; enlisted, August 20, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; 2d Sergeant; 2d Lieutenant October 1, 1862; Captain October 27, 1864; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

ORLANDO STOUT—Age, 18; residence, Tipton; nativity, Iowa; enlisted, September 21, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted, January 1, 1864; private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

DANIEL E. SWEET—Age. 23; residence, Tipton; nativity, Pennsylvania; enlisted, August 20, 1861; October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted, January 1, 1864; 2d Corporal; 1st Corporal; 5th Sergeant May 1, 1864; 3d Sergeant January 1, 1865; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

GEORGE SWEET—Age, 18; residence, Tipton; nativity, Wisconsin; enlisted, January 1, 1864; mustered, January 6, 1864; private; killed in battle, July 22, 1864.

HENRY L. SWEET—Age, 20: residence, Tipton; nativity, Pennsylvania: enlisted, August 20, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; 8th Corporal; died of disease. May 4, 1862.

HENRY M. SWIFT—Age, 18; residence, Boone county; nativity, Missouri; mustered, December 19, 1861; private; died of disease, June 23, 1862.

MILTON SWIFT—Supposed to be Henry M. Swift.

Odell THORNE—Age, 20; residence, Louden; nativity, Ohio; enlisted, September 17, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted, January 1, 1864; private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

GEORGE M. TITUS—Age, 22; residence, Louden; nativity, Pennsylvania; enlisted, September 18, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted. January 1, 1864; fifer; 5th Sergeant January 1, 1865; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

JOSEPH TOMLINSON—Age, 24; residence, Tipton; nativity, New York; enlisted, September 14, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted, January 1, 1864; private; 3d Sergeant; 1st Sergeant May 1, 1864; 1st Lieutenant December 17, 1864; Captain July 29, 1865; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

GEORGE W. TOYNE—age, 27; residence, Tipton; nativity, England; enlisted, August 20, 1862; mustered, August 30, 1862; private; mustered out, June 2, 1865.

GEORGE W. TUTHILL—Age, 30; residence, Davenport; nativity, New York; enlisted, March 25, 1864; mustered, March 25, 1864; private; mustered out, July 11, 1865.

PETER VINRICHE—Age, 32; residence, Louden; nativity, France; enlisted. September 18, 1861; mustered, October 5. 1861; veteran; reenlisted, January 1, 1864; private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

SALEM WADE—Age, 21; residence, Davenport; nativity, New York; enlisted, September 23, 1864; mustered, September 23, 1864; private; mustered out, June 2, 1865.

LEROY WALDO—Age, 22; residence, Davenport; nativity, Ohio; enlisted, September 28, 1864; mustered, September 28, 1864; private; mustered out, June 2, 1865.

DARIUS WATERHOUSE—Age, 25; residence, Davenport; nativity, New York; enlisted, January 27, 1864; February 11, 1864; private; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

JOHN A. WHITE—Age, 22; residence, Wyoming; nativity, Michigan; enlisted, September 20, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted January 1, 1864; 5th Corporal; 4th Sergeant October 16, 1862; 3d Sergeant May 1, 1864; 2d Lieutenant October 27, 1864; 1st Lieutenant. July 29, 1865; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

MILTON G. WAGGINS—Age, 18; residence, Tipton; nativity, Ohio; enlisted, September 9, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted, January 1, 1864; private; 8th Corporal April 25, 1862; 7th Corporal: 5th Corporal January 1, 1864; 4th Corporal; 2d Corporal January 1. 1865; mustered out, July 15, 1865.

GEORGE T. WILLCOTT—Age, 20; residence, Inland; nativity, Ohio; enlisted. August 20, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; died of disease, May 12, 1862.

JOHN ZITLER—Age, 19; residence, Tipton; nativity, Pennsylvania; enlisted, September 24, 1861; mustered, October 5, 1861; veteran; reenlisted, January 1, 1864; wounded, June 15, 1864; mustered out, July 15, 1865.
_______________

1 See Downlng's Civil War Diary, p. 222.

Source: Alexander G. Downing, Edited by Olynthus B., Clark, Downing’s Civil War Diary, p. 298-302

Some Observations by Alexander G. Downing

BROTHERS IN COMPANY E.

Twelve families are represented in Company E by two brothers each, and one by three brothers. John W. and Samuel Albin — John W. slightly wounded June 15, 1864, on the skirmish line on Noon-day creek, Kenesaw Mountain in Georgia. Robert and William Alexander —William killed on the skirmish line June 15, 1864, on Noon-day creek at the foot of a spur of Kenesaw Mountain. John M. and Sylvester Daniels — John M. received a wound on one hand at Shiloh April 6, 1862, and was discharged for disability on October 13, 1862. John W. and William Dwiggans — William died of typhoid fever December 28, 1861, and John W. died from wounds received at Shiloh May 7, 1862. John W. and William Esher — John W. was severely wounded June 25, 1864, at Kenesaw Mountain and discharged for disability March 20, 1865. Allen and Carlton Frink — Carlton killed at Shiloh April 6, 1862. Dean and John Ford — John had his right thumb shot off at Vicksburg and then slightly wounded on the skirmish line June 15, 1864, on Noon-day creek, Kenesaw Mountain. Ezra and Samuel McLoney — Ezra killed at Shiloh April 6, 1862. Francis and Reuben Niese — Reuben died March 2, 1865, in McDougal's Hospital near New York City. Ebenezer and James Rankin. Burtis H. and James K. Rumsey — James K. died at Chattanooga, Tennessee, February 2, 1865. George W. and Wilson Simmons — George W. wounded at Shiloh April 6, 1862, and died of his wounds May 12, 1862; Wilson died of lung fever April 15, 1862. Daniel, George and Henry Sweet — George killed in battle July 22, 1864, near Atlanta, Georgia; Henry L. died of fever in the Division Hospital in Tennessee, May 4, 1862.

CASUALTIES IN COMPANY E.

Killed in action, 11. Died of wounds, 4. Died of disease, 14. Discharged for disability, 15. Taken prisoners, 6. Deserters, 4. Absent on account of sickness for short periods, 52. Absent on account of slight wounds, 31. Total casualties, 117, or a fraction over 82 per cent of the 142 men in the company during the four years' service. There were those who were sick and marked not fit for duty, yet who did not leave the company, and there were others slightly wounded who likewise did not leave the company. Then, there were those, who for the same causes, had to go to the hospitals and be absent from the company for weeks at a time. The regimental surgeon would examine all cases, and it was left to his decision as to what a man had to do.

CROCKER'S IOWA BRIGADE.

Crocker's Iowa Brigade was composed of the Eleventh, Thirteenth, Fifteenth and Sixteenth Infantry Regiments. The regiments enlisted in the months of September and October, 1861, and were organized into a brigade April 27, 1862. There were in all 6289 enlisted men in the brigade.

The regiments had the following numbers, rank and file:

Eleventh
1297
Thirteenth
1788
Fifteenth
1767
Sixteenth
1441

The record of re-enlistments in the different regiments at Vicksburg, Mississippi, January, 1864, is as follows:

Eleventh
420
Thirteenth
450
Fifteenth
440
Sixteenth
415

The casualties numbered 4773, or seventy-six per cent of the strength of the brigade. The record of the officers and men who died during the war is as follows:


Killed in battle
Wounded
Died of wounds and disease
Total dead
Eleventh
90
234
148
238
Thirteenth
117
313
176
293
Fifteenth
140
416
231
371
Sixteenth
101
311
217
318

448
1274
772
1220

The miles traveled in marching during the war are, by years:


By land
By boat and railroad
1862
495
581
1863
470
651
1864
1979
1660
1865 (to July 24)
1622
440

This makes a total of 4566 miles traveled by land and 3332 miles by boat and railroad, with a grand total of 7898 miles.

BATTLES ENGAGED IN BY CROCKER'S BRIGADE.

1862.

Shiloh, Tenn., April 6th.
Advance on Corinth, Miss., April 28th to May 30th.
Iuka, Miss., September 19th, 20th.
Corinth, Miss., October 3d, 4th.
Waterford, Miss., November 29th.

1863.

Lafayette, Tenn., January 2d.

Richmond, La., January 30th.
Siege of Vicksburg, May 20th to July 4th.
Oakridgetown, La., August 27th.
Monroe, La., August 29th.

1864.

Meridian, Miss., February 24th.

Big Shanty, Ga., June 10th.
Noon-Day Creek, Ga., June 15th.
Brushy Mountain, Ga., June 19th.
Kenesaw Mountain, Ga., June 27th to July 1st.
Second Advance on Nick-a-Jack Creek, Ga., July 3d, 4th, 5th.
Advance on Atlanta, Ga., July 20th.
Charge on Bald Hill, Ga., July 21st.
Battle of Atlanta, Ga., July 22d.
Ezra Church, Ga., July 28th.
Advance on Atlanta, Ga., August 3d.
Before Atlanta, Ga., August 3d to August 16th.
Atlanta & Montgomery R. R., Ga., August 28th.
Jonesboro, Ga., August 31st to September 1st.
Flynt Creek, Ga., September 1st.
Lovejoy Station, Ga., September 2d.
Fairburn, Ga., October 2d.
Snake Creek Gap, Ga., October 15th.
Savannah, Ga., December 10th to 21st.

The battles from June to September are known as the Siege of Atlanta. During this period of eighty-seven days Crocker's Brigade was under fire eighty-one days.

1865.

Garden Corners, S. C, January 14th.

River Bridge, Salkahatchie Swamp, S. C, February 2d.
Big Salkahatchie Swamp, S. C, February 3d.
North Edisto River, S C, February 9th.
Columbia, S. C, March 3d.
Fayetteville, N. C, March 11th.
Bentonville, N. C, March 20th, 21st.
Raleigh, N. C, April 13th.

INTEMPERANCE IN THE ARMY.

Intemperance in the army during the war was the cause of much disturbance, and, to the men using intoxicating liquors, it was a curse. Men who were good men when sober, became, when intoxicated, regular demons. There were more men ordered bucked and gagged by officers for drunkenness than any other cause, and that just for the reason that a drunk man will talk or fight.

The only trouble I had with any of the boys in my company was at Louisville, Kentucky, just before we were mustered out. One of the boys came back to camp from the city so drunk that he could hardly walk. I was out in front of my “ranch,” cleaning my rifle and accouterments, and, as I was the first man he happened to see upon his return, he was ready for a fight at once. I, of course, kept out of his way and soon a number of other boys came out, captured him, took him to his “ranch” and tied him to a post. There he remained till he “cooled off.”

HARDSHIPS OF WAR.

Some people think that being in a battle is all there is to war. While experience in battle is a dreadful thing, it is by no means the only hardship in war. Here are some of the hardships and dangers aside from being under fire: in a field hospital; suffering from wounds or from any of the many diseases to which a soldier is subject; on long marches, sometimes for days and even nights at a time, or on picket line for a day and a night without sleep; in rain or snow, and that without protection, or perhaps in digging trenches all night for protection the next day, or in remaining in the rifle pits for days and nights at a time, and in addition, drinking stagnant water, thus causing fevers; then for days and weeks at work, building heavy fortifications, and besides all at times on short rations, when an ear of corn would be a Godsend — these are some of the many hardships. But above all things, starving to death in a Southern prison required more courage than going into any battle fought during the Civil war.

MY PAY FROM THE GOVERNMENT.

While in the army, I received as my pay, $700.00, as bounty money, $500.00, and for clothing, $40.00, making a total of $1,240.00. Besides this I received from the State of Iowa, $24.00.

Privates received $13.00 per month to May 1, 1864, after which time they received $16.00. Sergeants received $22.00 per month.

Source: Alexander G. Downing, Edited by Olynthus B., Clark, Downing’s Civil War Diary, p. 298-302

Diary of William Howard Russell: May 14, 1861

Down to our yacht, the Diana, which is to be ready this afternoon, and saw her cleared out a little — a broad-beamed, flat-floored schooner, some fifty tons burden, with a centre-board, badly calked, and dirty enough — unfamiliar with paint. The skipper was a long-legged, ungainly young fellow, with long hair and an inexpressive face, just relieved by the twinkle of a very “Yankee” eye; but that was all of the hated creature about him, for a more earnest seceder I never heard.

His crew consisted of three rough, mechanical sort of men and a negro cook. Having freighted the vessel with a small stock of stores, a British flag, kindly lent by the acting Consul, Mr. Magee, and a tablecloth to serve as a flag of truce, our party, consisting of the gentlemen previously named, Mr. Ward, and the young artist, weighed from the quay of Mobile at five o'clock in the evening, with the manifest approbation of the small crowd who had assembled to see us off, the rumor having spread through the town that we were bound to see the great fight. The breeze was favorable and steady; at nine o'clock, P. M., the lights of Fort Morgan were on our port beam, and for some time we were expecting to see the flash of a gun, as the skipper confidently declared they would never allow us to pass unchallenged.

The darkness of the night might possibly have favored us, or the sentries were remiss; at all events, we were soon creeping through the “Swash,” which is a narrow channel over the bar, through which our skipper worked us by means of a sounding pole. The air was delightful, and blew directly off the low shore, in a line parallel to which we were moving. When the evening vapors passed away, the stars shone out brilliantly, and though the wind was strong, and sent us at a good eight knots through the water, there was scarcely a ripple on the sea. Our course lay within a quarter of a mile of the shore, which looked like a white ribbon fringed with fire, from the ceaseless play of the phosphorescent surf. Above this belt of sand rose the black, jagged outlines of a pine forest, through which steal immense lagoons and marshy creeks.

Driftwood and trees strew the beach, and from Fort Morgan, for forty miles, to the entrance of Pensacola, not a human habitation disturbs the domain sacred to alligators, serpents, pelicans, and wild-fowl. Some of the lagoons, like the Perdida, swell into inland seas, deep buried in pine woods, and known only to the wild creatures swarming along its brink and in its waters; once, if report says true, frequented, however, by the filibusters and by the pirates of the Spanish Main.

If the mosquitoes were as numerous and as persecuting in those days as they are at present, the most adventurous youth would have soon repented the infatuation which led him to join the brethren of the Main. The mosquito is a great enemy to romance, and our skipper tells us that there is no such place known in the world for them as this coast.

As the Diana flew along the grim shore, we lay listlessly on the deck admiring the excessive brightness of the stars, or watching the trailing fire of her wake. Now and then great fish flew off from the shallows, cleaving their path in flame; and one shining gleam came up from leeward like a watery comet, till its horrible outline was revealed close to us — a monster shark — which accompanied us with an easy play of the fin, distinctly visible in the wonderful phosphorescence, now shooting on ahead, now dropping astern, till suddenly it dashed off seaward with tremendous rapidity and strength on some errand of destruction, and vanished in the waste of waters. Despite the multitudes of fish on the coast, the Spaniards who colonize this ill-named Florida must have had a trying life of it between the Indians, now hunted to death or exiled by rigorous Uncle Sam, the mosquitoes, and the numberless plagues which abound along these shores.

Hour after hour passed watching the play of large fish and the surf on the beach; one by one the cigar-lights died out; and muffling ourselves up on deck, or creeping into the little cabin, the party slumbered. I was awoke by the Captain talking to one of his hands close to me, and on looking up saw that he was staring through a wonderful black tube, which he denominated his “tallowscope,” at the shore.

Looking in the direction, I observed the glare of a fire in the wood, which on examination through an opera-glass resolved itself into a steady central light, with some smaller specks around it. “Will,” said the Captain, “I guess it is just some of them d----d Yankees as is landed from their tarnation boats, and is ‘conoitering’ for a road to Mobile.” There was an old iron carronade on board, and it struck me as a curious exemplification of the recklessness of our American cousins, when the skipper said, “Let us put a bag of bullets in the ould gun, and touch it off at them;” which he no doubt would have done, seconded by one of our party, who drew his revolver to contribute to the broadside, but that I represented to them it was just as likely to be a party out from the camp at Pensacola, and that, anyhow, I strongly objected to any belligerent act whilst I was on board. It was very probably, indeed, the watchfire of a Confederate patrol, for the gentry of the country have formed themselves into a body of regular cavalry for such service; but the skipper declared that our chaps knew better than to be showing their lights in that way, when we were within ten miles of the entrance to Pensacola.

The skipper lay-to, as he, very wisely, did not like to run into the centre of the United States squadron at night; but just at the first glimpse of dawn the Diana resumed her course, and bowled along merrily till, with the first rays of the sun, Fort M'Rae, Fort Pickens, and the masts of the squadron were visible ahead, rising above the blended horizon of land and sea. We drew upon them rapidly, and soon could make out the rival flags — the Stars and Bars and Stars and Stripes — flouting defiance at each other.

On the land side on our left is Fort M'Rae, and on the end of the sand-bank, called Santa Rosa Island, directly opposite, rises the outline of the much-talked-of Fort Pickens, which is not unlike Fort Paul on a small scale. Through the glass the blockading squadron is seen to consist of a sailing frigate, a sloop, and three steamers; and as we are scrutinizing them, a small schooner glides from under the shelter of the guardship, and makes towards us like a hawk on a sparrow. Hand over hand she comes, a great swaggering ensign at her peak, and a gun all ready at her bow; and rounding up along-side us a boat manned by four men is lowered, an officer jumps in, and is soon under our counter. The officer, a bluff, sailor-like looking fellow, in a uniform a little the worse for wear, and wearing his beard as officers of the United States navy generally do, fixed his eye upon the skipper — who did not seem quite at his ease, and had, indeed, confessed to us that he had been warned off by the Oriental, as the tender was named, only a short time before — and said, “Hallo, sir, I think I have seen you before: what schooner is this?” “The Diana of Mobile.” “I thought so.” Stepping on deck, he said, “Gentlemen, I am Mr. Brown, Master in the United States navy, in charge of the boarding schooner Oriental.” We each gave our names; whereupon Mr. Brown says, “I have no doubt it will be all right, be good enough to let me have your papers. And now, sir, make sail, and lie-to under the quarter of that steamer there, the Powhattan.” The Captain did not look at all happy when the officer called his attention to the indorsement on his papers; nor did the Mobile party seem very comfortable when he remarked, “I suppose, gentlemen, you are quite well aware there is a strict blockade of this port?”

In half an hour the schooner lay under the guns of the Powhattan, which is a stumpy, thick-set, powerful steamer of the old paddle-wheel kind, something like the Leopard. We proceeded along-side in the cutter's boat, and were ushered into the. cabin, where the officer commanding, Lieutenant David Porter, received us, begged us to be seated, and then inquired into the object of our visit, which he communicated to the flag-ship by signal, in order to get instructions as to our disposal. Nothing could exceed his courtesy; and I was most favorably impressed by himself, his officers, and crew. He took me over the ship, which is armed with ten-inch Dahlgrens and eleven-inch pivot guns, with rifled field-pieces and howitzers on the sponsons. Her boarding nettings were triced up, bows and weak portions padded with dead wood and old sails, and everything ready for action.

Lieutenant Porter has been in and out of the harbor examining the enemy's works at all hours of the night, and he has marked off on the chart, as he showed me, the bearings of the various spots where he can sweep or enfilade their works. The crew, all things considered, were very clean, and their personnel exceedingly fine.

We were not the only prize that was made by the Oriental this morning. A ragged little schooner lay at the other side of the Powhattan, the master of which stood rubbing his knuckles into his eyes, and uttering dolorous expressions in broken English and Italian, for he was a noble Roman of Civita Vecchia. Lieutenant Porter let me into the secret. These small traders at Mobile, pretending great zeal for the Confederate cause, load their vessels with fruit, vegetables, and things of which they know the squadron is much in want, as well as the garrison of the Confederate forts. They set out with the most valiant intention of running the blockade, and are duly captured by the squadron, the officers of which are only too glad to pay fair prices for the cargoes. They return to Mobile, keep their money in their pockets, and declare they have been plundered by the Yankees. If they get in, they demand still higher prices from the Confederates, and lay claim to the most exalted patriotism.

By signal from the flag-ship, Sabine, we were ordered to repair on board to see the senior officer, Captain Adams; and for the first time since I trod the deck of the old Leander in Balaklava harbor, I stood on board a fifty-gun sailing frigate. Captain Adams, a gray-haired veteran of very gentle manners and great urbanity received us in his cabin, and listened to my explanation of the cause of my visit with interest. About myself there was no difficulty; but he very justly observed he did not think it would be right to let the gentlemen from Mobile examine Fort Pickens, and then go among the Confederate camps. I am bound to say these gentlemen scarcely seemed to desire or anticipate such a favor.

Major Vogdes, an engineer officer from the fort, who happened to be on board, volunteered to take a letter from me to Colonel Harvey Browne, requesting permission to visit it; and I finally arranged with Captain Adams that the Diana was to be permitted to pass the blockade into Pensacola harbor, and thence to return to Mobile, my visit to Pickens depending on the pleasure of the Commandant of the place. “I fear, Mr. Russell,” said Captain Adams, “in giving you this permission, I expose myself to misrepresentation and unfounded attacks. Gentlemen of the press in our country care little about private character, and are, I fear, rather unscrupulous in what they say; but I rely upon your character that no improper use shall be made of this permission. You must hoist a flag of truce, as General Bragg, who commands over there, has sent me word he considers our blockade a declaration of war, and will fire upon any vessel which approaches him from our fleet.

In the course of conversation, whilst treating me to such man-of-war luxuries as the friendly officer had at his disposal, he gave me an illustration of the miseries of this cruel conflict — of the unspeakable desolation of homes, of the bitterness of feeling engendered in families. A Pennsylvanian by birth, he married long ago a lady of Louisiana, where he resided on his plantation till his ship was commissioned. He was absent on foreign service when the feud first began, and received orders at sea, on the South American station, to repair direct to blockade Pensacola. He has just heard that one of his sons is enlisted in the Confederate army, and that two others have joined the forces in Virginia; and as he said sadly, “God knows, when I open my broadside, but that I may be killing my own children.” But that was not all. One of the Mobile gentlemen brought him a letter from his daughter, in which she informs him that she has been elected vivandiรจre to a New Orleans regiment, with which she intends to push on to Washington, and get a lock of old Abe Lincoln's hair; and the letter concluded with the charitable wish that her father might starve to death if he persisted in his wicked blockade. But not the less determined was the gallant old sailor to do his duty.

Mr. Ward, one of my companions, had sailed in the Sabine in the Paraguay expedition, and I availed myself of his acquaintance with his old comrades to take a glance round the ship. Wherever they came from, four hundred more sailor-like, strong, handy young fellows could not be seen than the crew; and the officers were as hospitable as their limited resources in whiskey grog, cheese, and junk allowed them to be. With thanks for his kindness and courtesy, I parted from Captain Adams, feeling more than ever the terrible and earnest nature of the impending conflict. May the kindly good old man be shielded on the day of battle!

A ten-oared barge conveyed us to the Oriental, which, with flowing sheet, ran down to the Powhattan. There I saw Captain Porter, and told him that Captain Adams had given me permission to visit the Confederate camp, and that I had written for leave to go on shore at Fort Pickens. An officer was in his cabin, to whom I was introduced as Captain Poore, of the Brooklyn. “You don't mean to say, Mr. Russell,” said he, “that these editors of Southern newspapers who are with you have leave to go on shore?” This was rather a fishing question. “I assure you, Captain Poore, that there is no editor of a Southern newspaper in my company.”

The boat which took us from the Powhattan to the Diana was in charge of a young officer related to Captain Porter, who amused me by the spirit with which he bandied remarks about the war with the Mobile men, who had now recovered their equanimity, and were indulging in what is called chaff about the blockade. “Well,” he said, “you were the first to begin it; let us see whether you won't be the first to leave it off. I guess our Northern ice will pretty soon put out your Southern fire.”

When we came on board, the skipper heard our orders to up stick and away with an air of pity and incredulity; nor was it till I had repeated it, he kicked up his crew from their sleep on deck, and with a “Wa'll, really, I never did see sich a thing!” made sail towards the entrance to the harbor.

As we got abreast of Fort Pickens, I ordered tablecloth No. 1 to be hoisted to the peak; and through the “glass I saw that our appearance attracted no ordinary attention from the garrison of Pickens close at hand on our right, and the more distant Confederates on Fort M'Rae and the sand-hills on our left. The latter work is weak and badly built, quite under the command of Pickens, but it is supported by the old Spanish fort of Barrancas upon high ground further inland, and by numerous batteries at the water-line and partly concealed amidst the woods which fringe the shore as far as the navy yard of Warrington, near Pensaeola. The wind was light, but the tide bore us onwards towards the Confederate works. Arms glanced in the blazing sun where regiments were engaged at drill, clouds of dust rose from the sandy roads, horsemen riding along the beach, groups of men in uniform, gave a martial appearance to the place in unison with the black muzzles of the guns which peeped from the white sand batteries from the entrance of the harbor to the navy yard now close at hand. As at Sumter Major Anderson permitted the Carolinians to erect the batteries he might have so readily destroyed in the commencement, so the Federal officers here have allowed General Bragg to work away at his leisure, mounting cannon after cannon, throwing up earthworks, and strengthening his batteries, till he has assumed so formidable an attitude, that I doubt very much whether the fort and the fleet combined can silence his fire.

On the low shore close to us were numerous wooden houses and detached villas, surrounded by orange groves. At last the captain let go his anchor off the end of a wooden jetty, which was crowded with ammunition, shot, shell, casks of provisions, and commissariat stores. A small steamer was engaged in adding to the collection, and numerous light craft gave evidence that all trade had not ceased. Indeed, inside Santa Rosa Island, which runs for forty-five miles from Pickens eastward parallel to the shore, there is a considerable coasting traffic carried on for the benefit of the Confederates.

The skipper went ashore with my letters to General Bragg, and speedily returned with an orderly, who brought permission for the Diana to come along-side the wharf. The Mobile gentlemen were soon on shore, eager to seek their friends; and in a few seconds the officer of the quartermaster-general's department on duty came on board to conduct me to the officers' quarters, whilst waiting for my reply from General Bragg.

The navy yard is surrounded by a high wall, the gates closely guarded by sentries; the houses, gardens, workshops, factories, forges, slips, and building sheds are complete of their kind, and cover upwards of three hundred acres; and with the forts which protect the entrance, cost the United States Government not less than six millions sterling. Inside these was the greatest activity and life, — Zouave, Chasseurs, and all kind of military eccentricities — were drilling, parading, exercising, sitting in the shade, loading tumbrils, playing cards, or sleeping on the grass. Tents were pitched under the trees and on the little lawns and grass-covered quadrangles. The houses, each numbered and marked with the name of the functionary to whose use it was assigned, were models of neatness, with gardens in front, filled with glorious tropical flowers. They were painted green and white, provided with porticoes, Venetian blinds, verandas, and colonnades, to protect the inmates as much as possible from the blazing sun, which in the dog-days is worthy of Calcutta. The old Fulton is the only ship on the stocks. From the naval arsenal quantities of shot and shell are constantly pouring to the batteries. Piles of cannon-balls dot the grounds, but the only ordnance I saw were two old mortars placed as ornaments in the main avenue, one dated 1776.

The quartermaster conducted me through shady walks into one of the houses, then into a long room, and presented me en masse to a body of officers, mostly belonging to a Zouave regiment from New Orleans, who were seated at a very comfortable dinner, with abundance of champagne, claret, beer, and ice. They were all young, full of life and spirits, except three or four graver and older men, who were Europeans. One, a Dane, had fought against the Prussians and Schleswig-Holsteiners at Idstedt and Friederichstadt; another, an Italian, seemed to have been engaged indifferently in fighting all over the South American continent; a third, a Pole, had been at Comorn, and had participated in the revolutionary guerrilla of 1848. From these officers I learned that Mr. Jefferson Davis, his wife, Mr. Wigfall, and Mr. Mallory, Secretary of the Navy, had come down from Montgomery, and had been visiting the works all day.

Every one here believes the attack so long threatened is to come off at last and at once.

After dinner an aide-de-camp from General Bragg entered with a request that I would accompany him to the commanding officer's quarters. As the sand outside the navy yard was deep, and rendered walking very disagreeable, the young officer stopped a cart, into which we got, and were proceeding on our way, when a tall, elderly man, in a blue frock-coat with a gold star on the shoulder, trousers with a gold stripe and gilt buttons rode past, followed by an orderly, who looked more like a dragoon than anything I have yet seen in the States. “There's General Bragg,” quoth the aide, and I was duly presented to the General, who reined up by the wagon. He sent his orderly off at once for a light cart drawn by a pair of mules, in which I completed my journey, and was safely departed at the door of a substantial house surrounded by trees of lime, oak, and sycamore.

Led horses and orderlies thronged the front of the portico, and gave it the usual head-quarters-like aspect. General Bragg received me at the steps, and took me to his private room, where we remained for a long time in conversation. He had retired from the United States army after the Mexican war — in which, by the way, he played a distinguished part, his name being generally coupled with the phrase “a little more grape, Captain Bragg,” used in one of the hottest encounters of that campaign — to his plantation in Louisiana; but suddenly the Northern States declared their intention of using force to free and sovereign States, which were exercising their constitutional rights to secede from the Federal Union.

Neither he nor his family were responsible for the system of slavery. His ancestors found it established by law and flourishing, and had left him property, consisting of slaves, which was granted to him by the laws and constitution of the United States. Slaves were necessary for the actual cultivation of the soil in the South; Europeans and Yankees who settled there speedily became convinced of-that; and if a Northern population were settled in Louisiana to-morrow, they would discover that they must till the land by the labor of the black race, and that the only mode of making the black race work, was to hold them in a condition of involuntary servitude. “Only the other day, Colonel Harvey Browne, at Pickens, over the way, carried off a number of negroes from Tortugas, and put them to work at Santa Rosa. Why? Because his white soldiers were not able for it. No. The North was bent on subjugating the South, and as long as he had a drop of blood in his body, he would resist such an infamous attempt.”

Before supper General Bragg opened his maps, and pointed out to me in detail the position of all his works, the line of fire of each gun, and the particular object to be expected from its effects. “I know every inch of Pickens,” he said, “for I happened to be stationed there as soon as I left West Point, and I don't think there is a stone in it that I am not as well acquainted with as Harvey Browne.”

His staff, consisting of four intelligent young men, two of them lately belonging to the United States army, supped with us, and after a very agreeable evening, horses were ordered round to the door, and I returned to the navy yard attended by the General's orderly, and provided with a pass and countersign. As a mark of complete confidence, General Bragg told me, for my private ear, that he had no present intention whatever of opening fire, and that his batteries were far from being in a state, either as regards armament or ammunition, which would justify him in meeting the fire of the forts and the ships.

And so we bade good-by. “To-morrow,” said the General, “I will send down one of my best horses and Mr. Ellis, my aide-de-camp, to take you over all the works and batteries.” As I rode home with my honest orderly beside instead of behind me, for he was of a conversational turn, I was much perplexed in my mind, endeavoring to determine which was right and which was wrong in this quarrel, and at last, as at Montgomery, I was forced to ask myself if right and wrong were geographical expressions depending for extension or limitation on certain conditions of climate and lines of latitude and longitude. Here was the General's orderly beside me, an intelligent middle-aged man, who had come to do battle with as much sincerity — ay, and religious confidence — as ever actuated old John, Brown or any New England puritan to make war against slavery. “I have left my old woman and the children to the care of the niggers; I have turned up all my cotton land and planted it with corn, and I don't intend to go back alive till I've seen the back of the last Yankee in our Southern States.” “And are wife and children alone with the negroes?” “Yes, sir. There's only one white man on the plantation, an overseer sort of chap.” “Are not you afraid of the slaves rising?” “They're ignorant poor creatures, to be sure, but as yet they're faithful. Any way, I put my trust in God, and I know he'll watch over the house while I'm away fighting for this good cause!” This man came from Mississippi, and had twenty-five slaves, which represented a money value of at least £5000. He was beyond the age of enthusiasm, and was actuated, no doubt, by strong principles, to him unquestionable and sacred.

My pass and countersign, which were only once demanded, took me through the sentries, and I got on board the schooner shortly before midnight, and found nearly all the party on deck, enchanted with their reception. More than once we were awoke by the vigilant sentries, who would not let what Americans call “the balance” of our friends on board till they had seen my authority to receive them.

SOURCE: William Howard Russell, My Diary North and South, p. 198-209