Monday, October 15, 2018

Speech of Mayor Richard M. Bishop Welcoming Abraham Lincoln to Cincinnati, Ohio, February 12, 1861

Honored Sir: In the name of the people of all classes of my fellow-citizens I extend to you a cordial welcome, and in their behalf I have the honor of offering you the hospitalities of Cincinnati.

Our city needs no eulogy from me.  Her well-known character for enterprise, liberality and hospitality is not more distinguished that is her fidelity and undying devotion to the Union of these States, and a warm, filial and affectionate regard for that glorious ensign which has “braved the battle and the breeze,” upon land and see so many years.  The people, under the solemn and dignified forms of the Constitution, have chosen you as President of the United States, and as such I greet you.  And you will believe me when I say that it is the earnest and united desire of our citizens that your administration of the General Government may be marked by wisdom, patriotism and justice to all sections of the country, from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans, from the northern boundary of main to the Gulf of Mexico.  So that when you retire from office your fellow-citizens may greet you every-where with the cheering words,

“Well done though good and faithful servant.”

But, sir, I see in this great and anxious concourse not only the citizens of Ohio but also many from our sister State, Kentucky — the land of Clay, the former home of your parents and mine, and the place of your birth.  These, too, greet you, for they, like us, are, and ever will be, loyal to the Constitution and the Union.  I again welcome you to our noble city, and trust your short stay with us may be an agreeable one, and that your journey to our Federal Capital may be pleasant and safe.

SOURCE: “Reception of President Lincoln,” Cincinnati Daily Press, Cincinnati, Ohio, Wednesday Morning, February 13, 1861, p. 3

Abraham Lincoln’s Address to the Mayor Bishop and the Citizens of Cincinnati, Ohio, February 12, 1861

Mr. Mayor, Ladies, and Gentlemen: Twenty-four hours ago, at the capital of Indiana. I said to myself I have never seen so many people assembled together in winter weather. I am no longer able to say that. But it is what might reasonably have been expected — that this great city of Cincinnati would thus acquit herself on such an occasion. My friends, I am entirely overwhelmed by the magnificence of the reception which has been given, I will not say to me, but to the President-elect of the United States of America. Most heartily do I thank you, one and all, for it.

I am reminded by the address of your worthy mayor that this reception is given not by any one political party, and even if I had not been so reminded by his Honor I could not have failed to know the fact by the extent of the multitude I see before me now. I could not look upon this vast assemblage without being made aware that all parties were united in this reception. This is as it should be. It is as it should have been if Senator Douglas had been elected. It is as it should have been if Mr. Bell had been elected; as it should have been if Mr. Breckinridge had been elected; as it should ever be when any citizen of the United States is constitutionally elected President of the United States. Allow me to say that I think what has occurred here today could not have occurred in any other country on the face of the globe, without the influence of the free institutions which we have unceasingly enjoyed for three quarters of a century.

There is no country where the people can turn out and enjoy this day precisely as they please, save under the benign influence of the free institutions of our land.

I hope that, although we have some threatening national difficulties now — I hope that while these free institutions shall continue to be in the enjoyment of millions of free people of the United States, we will see repeated every four years what we now witness.

In a few short years, I, and every other individual man who is now living, will pass away; I hope that our national difficulties will also pass away, and I hope we shall see in the streets of Cincinnati — food old Cincinnati — for centuries to come, once every four years, her people give such a reception as this to the constitutionally elected President of the whole United States. I hope you shall all join in that reception, and that you shall also welcome your brethren from across the river to participate in it. We will welcome them in every State of the Union, no matter where they are from. From away South we shall extend them a cordial good-will, when our present difficulties shall have been forgotten and blown to the winds forever.

I have spoken but once before this in Cincinnati. That was a year previous to the late presidential election. On that occasion, in a playful manner, but with sincere words, I addressed much of what I said to the Kentuckians. I gave my opinion that we as Republicans would ultimately beat them as Democrats, but that they could postpone that result longer by nominating Senator Douglas for the presidency than they could in any other way. They did not, in any true sense of the word, nominate Mr. Douglas, and the result has come certainly as soon as ever I expected. I also told them how I expected they would be treated after they should have been beaten; and I now wish to recall their attention to what I then said upon that subject. I then said, “When we do as we say, — beat you, — you perhaps want to know what we will do with you. I will tell you, so far as lam authorized to speak for the opposition, what we mean to do with you. We mean to treat you, as near as we possibly can, as Washington, Jefferson, and Madison treated you. We mean to leave you alone, and in no way to interfere with your institutions; to abide by all and every compromise of the Constitution; and, in a word, coming back to the original proposition, to treat you, so far as degenerate men — if we have degenerated — may, according to the examples of those noble fathers, Washington, Jefferson, and Madison. We mean to remember that you are as good as we; that there is no difference between us other than the difference of circumstances. We mean to recognize and bear in mind always that you have as good hearts in your bosoms as other people, or as we claim to have, and treat you accordingly.”

Fellow-citizens of Kentucky! — friends!—brethren! may I call you in my new position? I see no occasion, and feel no inclination, to retract a word of this. If it shall not be made good, be assured the fault shall not be mine.

And now, fellow-citizens of Ohio, have you, who agree with him who now addresses you in political sentiment— have you ever entertained other sentiments toward our brethren of Kentucky than those I have expressed to you? If not, then why shall we not, as heretofore, be recognized and acknowledged as brethren again, living in peace and harmony again one with another? I take your response as the most reliable evidence that it may be so, trusting, through the good sense of the American people, on all sides of all rivers in America, under the providence of God, who has never deserted us. that we shall again be brethren, forgetting all parties, ignoring all parties. My friends, I now bid you farewell.

SOURCES: John G. Nicolay and John Hay, Editors, Abraham Lincoln: Complete Works, Volume 1, p. 674-6

Sunday, October 14, 2018

Governor Oliver P. Morton's Speech Welcoming Abraham Lincoln to Indianapolis, Indiana, February 11, 1861

Sir, on behalf of the people of Indiana, I bid you welcome.  They avail themselves of this occasion to offer their tribute of high respect to your character as a man and as a statesman, and in your person to honor the high office to which you have been elected.  In every free government there will be differences of opinion, and those differences result in the formation of parties; but when the voice of the people has been expressed through the forms of the Constitution, all parties yield to it obedience.  Submission to the popular will is the essential principle of Republican government, and so vital is this principle that it admits of but one exception, which is revolution.  To weaken it, is anarchy; to destroy it, is despotism.  It recognizes no appeal beyond the ballot box, and while it is preserved, liberty may be wounded but never slain.  To this principle the people of Indiana – men of all parties – are bound, and they here welcome you as the Chief Magistrate elect of the people.  When our fathers framed the Constitution, they declared it was to form a more perfect union, establish justice and to preserve the blessings of liberty to themselves and their posterity; and for this consideration we proclaim the determination of our people to maintain that Constitution inviolate as it came from their hands.  This Union has been the idol of our hopes, the parent of our prosperity, our title to the respect and consideration of the world.  May it be preserved, it is the prayer of every patriotic heart in Indiana, and that it shall be, is their determination.

You are about to enter upon your official duties under circumstances at once novel and full of difficulty, and it will be the duty of all good citizens without distinction of party, to yield a cordial and earnest support to every measure of your administration calculated to maintain the Union, promote the national prosperity, and restore peace to our distracted and unhappy country.  Our Government, which but yesterday was the theme of every eulogy, and stood the Admiration of the world is today threatening to crumble into ruins, and it remains to be seen whether it possesses living principles, or whether in the fullness of time the hour of its dissolution is at hand.  But we are full of confidence that the end is not yet, that the precious rich inheritance whom our fathers will not elude our grasp or be wrested from us without a struggle; that we are but passing through one of those civil commotions that make the history of very nation, and that we shall emerge from the present gloom into the bright sunlight of peace and fraternity, and march forward with accelerated speed in the paths of prosperity and power.

SOURCE: “Gov. Morton’s Speech,” Chicago Daily Tribune, Chicago, Illinois, Tuesday February 12, 1861, p. 1

Abraham Lincoln's Speech in Reply to Governor Oliver P. Morton, February 11, 1861

Gov. Morton and Fellow Citizens of the State of Indiana:

Most heartily do I thank you for this magnificent reception, and while I cannot take to myself any share of the compliment thus paid, more than that which pertains to a mere instrument, an accidental instrument, perhaps I should say, of a great cause, I yet must look upon it as a most magnificent reception, and as such, most heartily do I thank you for it.

You have been pleased to address yourselves to me chiefly in behalf of this glorious Union in which we live, in all of which you have my hearty sympathy, and, as far as may be within my power, will have, one and inseparably, my hearty consideration. While I do not expect, upon this occasion, or on any occasion, till after I get to Washington, to attempt any lengthy speech, I will only say that to the salvation of this Union there needs but one single thing — the hearts of a people like yours. [Applause.] When the people rise in masses in behalf of the Union and the liberties of their country, truly may it be said, “The gates of hell shall not prevail against them.” [Renewed applause.]

In all the trying positions in which I shall be placed, and doubtless I shall be placed in many trying ones, my reliance will be placed upon you and the people of the United States — and I wish you to remember now and forever, that it is your business, and not mine; that if the union of these States, and the liberties of this people, shall be lost, it is but little to any one man of fifty-two years of age, but a great deal to the thirty millions of people who inhabit these United States, and to their posterity in all coming time. It is your business to rise up and preserve the Union and liberty, for yourselves, and not for me. I desire they shall be constitutionally preserved.

I, as already intimated, am but an accidental instrument, temporary, and to serve but for a limited time, but I appeal to you again to constantly bear in mind that with you, and not with politicians, not with Presidents, not with office-seekers, but with you, is the question, “Shall the Union and shall the liberties of this country be preserved to the latest generation”' [Loud and prolonged applause.]

SOURCES: Roy P. Basler, Editor, Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, Volume 4, p. 193-4 “Mr. Lincoln’s Reply,” Chicago Daily Tribune, Chicago, Illinois, Tuesday February 12, 1861, p. 1; “Mr. Lincoln’s Reply,” Illinois State Journal, Springfield, Illinois, Wednesday, February 13, 1861, p. 2.

Speech of Abraham Lincoln at the Bates Hotel, Indianapolis, Indiana, February 11, 1861

Fellow citizens of the State of Indiana,” he proclaimed, “I am here to thank you much for this magnificent welcome, and still more for the very generous support given by your State to that political cause, which I think is the true and just cause of the whole country and the whole world. Solomon says ‘there is a time to keep silence;’ and when men wrangle by the mouth, with no certainty that they mean the same thing while using the same words, it perhaps were as well if they would keep silence. The words ‘coercion’ and ‘invasion’ are much used in these days, and often with some temper and hot blood. Let us make sure, if we can, that we do not misunderstand the meaning of those who use them. Let us get the exact definitions of these words, not from dictionaries, but from the men themselves, who certainly deprecate the things they would represent by the use of the words. What, then, is ‘coercion’? What is ‘invasion’? Would the marching of an army into South Carolina, without the consent of her people, and with hostile intent towards them, be invasion? I certainly think it would, and it would be ‘coercion’ also if the South Carolinians were forced to submit. But if the United States should merely hold and retake its own forts and other property, and collect the duties on foreign importations, or even withhold the mails from places where they were habitually violated, would any or all of these things be ‘invasion’ or ‘coercion’? Do our professed lovers of the Union, but who spitefully resolve that they will resist coercion and invasion, understand that such things as these, on the part of the United States, would be coercion or invasion of a State? If so, their idea of means to preserve the object of their great affection would seem to be exceedingly thin and airy. If sick, the little pills of the homœopathist would be much too large for it to swallow. In their view, the Union, as a family relation, would seem to be no regular marriage, but rather a sort of ‘free-love’ arrangement, to be maintained on passional attraction. By the way, in what consists the special sacredness of a State? I speak not of the position assigned to a State in the Union by the Constitution, for that is the bond we all recognize. That position, however, a State cannot carry out of the Union with it. I speak of that assumed primary right of a State to rule all which is less than itself, and to ruin all which is larger than itself. If a State and a County, in a given case, should be equal in extent of territory and equal in number of inhabitants, in what, as a matter of principle, is the State better than the County? Would an exchange of name be an exchange of rights? Upon what principle, upon what rightful principle, may a State, being no more than one-fiftieth part of the nation in soil and population, break up the nation, and then coerce a proportionably larger subdivision of itself in the most arbitrary way? What mysterious right to play tyrant is conferred on a district of country with its people, by merely calling it a State? Fellow-citizens, I am not asserting any thing. I am merely asking questions for you to consider. And now allow me to bid you farewell.

SOURCE: D. Appleton & Co., Publisher, The American Annual Cycopӕdia and Register for Important Events of the Year1861, Volume 1, p. 411

Saturday, October 13, 2018

Official Reports of the Campaign in North Alabama and Middle Tennessee, November 14, 1864 — January 23, 1865: No. 111. Report of Col. Charles A. Zollinger, One hundred and twenty-ninth Indiana Infantry, of operations November 23-December 5, 1864.

No. 111.

Report of Col. Charles A. Zollinger, One hundred and twenty-ninth
Indiana Infantry, of operations November 23-December 5, 1864.

HDQRS. 129TH REGT. INDIANA VOLUNTEER INFANTRY,
Nashville, Tenn., December 5, 1864.

COLONEL: I have the honor to transmit the following as a part taken by the One hundred and twenty-ninth Regiment Indiana Volunteer Infantry in the late campaign in Tennessee:

On the morning of November 23, 1864, my regiment was put aboard the cars at Johnsonville, Tenn., from which place we proceeded to Columbia, Tenn., arriving there on the morning of the 24th, and took position on the right of One hundred and eighteenth Ohio, in support of brigade. At 10 a.m. same day was ordered out to protect the railroad bridge across Duck River, where we remained until after dark, at which time we were ordered to move and join the brigade. We there took position on right of brigade and fortified during the night. At this place we remained until 2 a.m. November 26, when we moved back (with brigade) to Duck River bridge, where we again fortified, and kept the position until 2 a.m. November 28, at which time we were ordered to cross the river (crossing on railroad bridge), where we again took position in support of the brigade, and remained in that position until 8 p.m., when we were ordered to take position in front line on the right of the One hundred and eighteenth Ohio, where we fortified during the night, and remained at our works until 12 m. November 29, when we were ordered to move in rear of the One hundred and eighteenth Ohio in the direction of Franklin, Tenn., and on arriving within two miles of Spring Hill was ordered back one mile and a half to guard a point until Third Division, Twenty-third Army Corps, and one division of Fourth Army Corps should pass, which we did, and at 12 o'clock (midnight) we started and rejoined the brigade near Spring Hill, and without halting marched with it to Franklin, arriving at daylight November 30. Breakfast over, we took position near town, near Franklin pike, where we fortified and sent out pickets. At 4 p.m. the enemy advanced in three lines of battle, drove in our pickets, and charged our works repeatedly, with heavy slaughter to themselves and comparatively small to us. At about 3 a.m. December 1 we moved out in direction of Nashville, Tenn., where we arrived same evening and where we still remain.

In closing this report I have the honor to state that the officers and men of my command discharged every duty assigned them cheerfully and promptly, and deserve the title of true soldiers and devoted friends of our country.

List of casualties of my regiment are as follows.*

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
 C. A. ZOLLINGER,
Colonel, Commanding 129th Regiment Indiana Volunteers.
Col. O. H. MOORE,
Comdg. Second Brig., Second Div., Twenty-third Army Corps.
_______________

* Nominal list (omitted) shows 4 men killed, 1 officer and 15 men wounded and 2 men missing.

SOURCE: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volume 45, Part 1 (Serial No. 93), p. 384-5

151st Indiana Infantry

Organized at Indianapolis, Ind., and mustered in March 3, 1865. Left State for Nashville, Tenn., March 6; thence moved to Tullahoma, Tenn., March 14, and duty there till June 14. Moved to Nashville, Tenn., June 14, and garrison duty there till September. Mustered out September 19, 1865. Lost during service 66 by disease.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the 3, p. Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1158

152nd Indiana Infantry

Organized at Indianapolis, Ind., and mustered in March 16, 1865. Left State for Harper's Ferry, W. Va., March 18. Duty at Charleston, Stevenson's Station, Summit Point and Clarksburg, W. Va., till August. Mustered out August 30, 1865. Lost during service 49 by disease.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the 3, p. Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1158

153rd Indiana Infantry

Organized at Indianapolis, Ind., March 1, 1865. Left State for Nashville, Tenn., March 5. Stopped at Louisville, Ky., while en route and sent to Russellsville, Ky. Operating against guerillas in vicinity of Russellsville till June. Lyons County April 29 (Detachment). Moved to Louisville, Ky., June 16, and duty at Taylor's Barracks till September. Mustered out September 4, 1865. Lost during service 3 Enlisted men killed and 46 Enlisted men by disease. Total 49.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the 3, p. Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1158

154th Indiana Infantry

Organized at Indianapolis, Ind., April 20, 1865. Left State for Parkersburg, W. Va., April 30; thence moved to Stevenson's Station, Shenandoah Valley, Va., May 2-4. Duty at Stevenson's Station till June 27, and at Opequan Creek till August 4. Mustered out August 4, 1865. Lost during service 1 Enlisted man killed and 40 Enlisted men by disease. Total 41.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the 3, p. Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1158

155th Indiana Infantry

Organized at Indianapolis April 18. 1865. Left State for Washington, D.C., April 26. Assigned to Provisional Brigade, 3rd Division, 9th Army Corps. Moved to Dover, Del., May 3. Duty in Delaware and Maryland by Detachments till August. Mustered out, August 4, 1865. Lost during service 19 by disease.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the 3, p. Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1158

156th Indiana Infantry

Organized at Indianapolis, Ind., April 12, 1865. Left State for Harper's Ferry, W. Va., April 27. Guard and patrol duty at various points in the Shenandoah Valley till August. Mustered out August 4, 1865. Lost during service 17 by disease.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the 3, p. Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1158

157th Indiana Infantry

Failed to complete organization.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the 3, p. Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1158

158th Indiana Infantry

Failed to complete organization.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the 3, p. Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1158

Friday, October 12, 2018

Official Reports of the Campaign in North Alabama and Middle Tennessee, November 14, 1864 — January 23, 1865: No. 110. Report of Lieut. Col. Alfred D. Owen, Eightieth Indiana Infantry, of operations November 23-December 5, 1864.

No. 110.

Report of Lieut. Col. Alfred D. Owen, Eightieth Indiana Infantry, of
operations November 23-December 5, 1864.

HDQRS. EIGHTIETH REGIMENT INDIANA VOLUNTEERS,
Nashville, Tenn., December 5, 1864.

SIR: In compliance with circular issued from division headquarters of this date, I have the honor to make the following report of operations of my regiment from Johnsonville, Tenn., up to the present time:

Leaving that place November 23, 1864, by railroad, via Nashville, we arrived at Columbia, Tenn, about 2 a.m. of the 24th instant [ultimo], where we were ordered by Colonel Moore into the earth-works on the south side of town and the fort. About 10 a.m. I received orders to march out on the Mount Pleasant pike. After proceeding about a mile I was detached from the brigade, and moved to the right of the pike, where I relieved a battalion of cavalry, who were guarding a ford across the creek that ran into Duck River, and about one mile from its mouth. Here I threw up a barricade of rails, and at 10 p.m. Captain Lee, assistant commissary of musters, brought me orders to move to a commanding position 250 yards to my left, and relieved me by the One hundred and twenty-ninth Regiment Indiana Volunteer Infantry. After completing another barricade I permitted my men to rest during the remainder of the night, and at 8 a.m. on the 25th Colonel Moore moved my regiment to the left of the One hundred and eleventh Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry, where I constructed earth-works to the pike, a distance of 300 yards. Company B, Captain Mosier commanding, was on picket and under fire during the day, but sustained no loss. At 6 p.m. I received orders to march at 12 that night to Duck River railroad bridge, following the Twenty-third Regiment Michigan Volunteer Infantry, but in consequence of a misunderstanding the Twenty-third Michigan and my regiment were separated from the remainder of the brigade about 1 o'clock in the morning, and compelled to return to the pike, when we marched to Duck River bridge, arriving there shortly after daylight of the 26th instant. Here we were again occupied in erecting earthworks until 3 a.m. on the morning of the 28th of November, when we were ordered to cross Duck River and build works on the north side, but before finishing them the enemy's skirmishers made their appearance on the opposite bank, and occupied our attention until 11 a.m., when they opened upon my regiment with artillery. After firing a few shots two guns of the Twenty-second Indiana Battery, on my right, silenced those of the enemy.

Nothing more of interest transpired during the day or night, and at 10 a.m. on the 29th I moved, in obedience to Colonel Moore's orders, toward the Franklin pike. On arriving within two miles and a half of Spring Hill the enemy's skirmishers opened upon us and we were ordered into line of battle, and marched to within one mile of Spring Hill, where we halted for an hour, after which time we resumed our march, reaching Franklin at 7 a.m. on the 30th instant, and were again occupied in building works. At 4 p.m. the enemy moved upon us, but were driven back in confusion. During the engagement I received orders to send two companies to take possession of the works on the left of the Twenty-third Regiment Michigan Volunteer Infantry, where troops had been driven back. I sent Companies C and H, under Captain Cochran, who retook the works and held them during the fight, taking 40 prisoners, including 1 major, 1 inspector.general, and 2 lieutenants. My loss during the fight was 10 men wounded — Sergt. George W. Walker, Company B; Corpl. J. Alexander Chambers, Company C; Privates William H. Spore and William C. Mcintire, Company E; Corpl. J. L. Knowles and Private Adam Emmert, Company F; Privates Henry Ferrell and John Hunley, Company H; Private W. H. H. Ranner, Company G, and Sergt. V. Corben, Company K. At 12 o'clock at night we left the works, crossing the river, and marched toward this place, arriving at 3 p.m. of the 1st instant, where we have remained uninterrupted until the present time.

Respectfully submitted.
ALFRED D. OWEN,            
Lieut. Col., Comdg. Eightieth Regiment Indiana Vol. Infantry.
Lieut. S. H. HUBBELL,
Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

SOURCE: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volume 45, Part 1 (Serial No. 93), p. 383-4

Senator William H. Seward to Gerrit Smith, November 10, 1852

Auburn, Nov. 10, 1852.

My Dear Sir, — I thank you for your circular. I cannot congratulate you on your election over the candidate of my own party. But I may say that it is full of instruction which I think the two parties needed, and that I look to its effect with confidence, as I do to your action in the house as full of hope and promise for the cause of Liberty and Humanity.

Faithfully your friend,
William H. Seward.

SOURCES: Octavius Brooks Frothingham, Gerrit Smith: A Biography, p. 214

Amos A. Lawrence to Charles L. Robinson, December 17, 1856

December 17, 1856.

Dear Sir, —. . . I wrote yesterday to Rev. Mr. Nute (with whom I had no personal acquaintance) about a monumental college, and requested him to consult with you. It is an old project of mine, and perhaps of yours. At any rate, I do not wish to lead off in it at all, and will not. It may seem assuming too much to suggest a name for it, but do so to prevent my own from being thought of, nor would I consent to it under any circumstances. It is a grand project, and I hope it will be carried out. It pains me not to be in a condition to take hold and put up the first building. . . .

Yours,
A. A. L.

SOURCE: William Lawrence, Life of Amos A. Lawrence: With Extracts from His Diary and Correspondence, p. 119

Thomas Wentworth Higginson, December 3, 1857

Worcester, December 3,1857

[In] Montreal . . . I saw many delightfully wholesome-looking people, English and French. Among other excitements I went to a steeplechase, which is one of the most enlivening things I ever saw — riders galloping over a mile and half circle of farming country, , taking hedges, ditches, and walls at full speed, the horses leaping like kittens, of course always at some risk of failure or delay. This multiplies the points of interest, and made it infinitely more exciting than any mere trial of speed on a level track. Then the people, those staid John Bulls, were as wild with exuberant emotions as a Yankee caucus. Everything indicated an athletic race. One thing especially delighted me; when I went in to ask the price of snowshoes, they asked me if I wished gentlemen's or ladies' size; and I found that ladies there wear them a good deal.

SOURCE: Mary Potter Thacher Higginson, Editor, Letters and Journals of Thomas Wentworth Higginson, 1846-1906, p. 95

Charles Sumner to Salmon P. Chase, June 11, 1861

Boston, 11th June, '60.
My Dear Chase:

Mr. Stearns, the devoted friend of Kansas, one of our most earnest, generous, and noble friends, whose purse has been always open and his mind always active for the good cause, has occasion to see you. I commend him cordially.

Ever yours,
Charles Sumner.

SOURCE: Preston Stearns, The Life and Public Services of George Luther Stearns, p. 250

Samuel Gridley Howe to Horace Mann, Friday Evening, April 1851

Boston, Friday Eve., April, 1851.

My Dear Mann: — Matters of great importance to Sumner will be on the tapis to-morrow forenoon: I am to go to the Council Chamber at ½ past 12. Cannot you be at my office in the forenoon — say at 11 to 12?

You must come if you come on your stumps.

Ever yours,
S. G. Howe.

SOURCE: Laura E. Richards, Editor, Letters and Journals of Samuel Gridley Howe, Volume 2, p. 345

William T. Sherman to Professor David F. Boyd, December 15, 1859

Seminary Of Learning, Alexandria, Dec. 15,1859.

My DEAR SIR: . . . I wrote you some time ago, addressed to Mount Lebanon, advising you to come on at once, to get in position before, we will be all in confusion by the arrival of the cadets. All the professors are now here at hand but yourself, and I think you should come on at once. I have just returned from New Orleans where I purchased all the room furniture for cadets, but I bought nothing for professors, and advise you to bring your bedding, indeed any furniture you may have, as Alexandria is a poor place to supply. I think you will be as comfortable here, and your health be restored as fast as anywhere in the state. All books must be ordered from New York. I found the supply in New Orleans very poor, and we want a list of your first text books, grammar, and dictionary as soon as possible, that they may be ordered, but, as I suppose we can fully employ the students the first few months in French and Algebra, I will now await your coming.

The want of certainty has caused many to doubt whether we could commence January 2, but you may announce that it is as certain as that the day will come. About thirty-four appointments have been made by the Board of Supervisors. I suppose sixteen will have been made by the governor. So you see thus far we have not an adequate supply of cadets. The right to appoint rests in the Board of Supervisors, but I know their views so well, and there being no time for formalities you may notify Mr. Gladney, and indeed any young men between fifteen and twenty-one, who can read and write, and who have some notion of arithmetic (addition, etc., as far as decimal fractions) to come on by January second and we will procure for them the appointment and receive them.

Each young man should be of good character with a trunk and fair supply of clothing, and must deposit two hundred dollars for six months' expenses in advance. We think we can make the aggregate year's expenses fall within four hundred dollars.

I wrote and sent you circulars to Mount Lebanon which I infer you did not receive. No cadet can be received except from Louisiana.

Please state these leading facts to some prominent gentleman of your neighborhood, assure them that its success is determined on, and that as soon as the Academic Board can meet, deliberate, and refer their work to a Board of Supervisors, full rules and regulations will be adopted, published and adhered to. Until that time we can hardly assert exactly what are our text books, or what the order of exercises.

It is however determined that the Seminary shall be governed by the military system, which far from being tyrannical or harsh is of the simplest character, easiest of enforcement and admits of the most perfect control by the legislature.

SOURCES: Walter L. Fleming, General W.T. Sherman as College President, p. 78-80

Thursday, October 11, 2018

John Brown to Rebecca Buffum Spring, November 24, 1859


Charlestown, Jefferson County, Va., Nov. 24, 1859.

My Dear Mrs. Spring, —Your ever welcome letter of the 19th inst., together with the one now enclosed, were received by me last night too late for any reply. I am always grateful for anything you either do or write. I would most gladly express my gratitude to you and yours by something more than words; but it has come to that, I now have but little else to deal in, and sometimes they are not so kind as they should be. You have laid me and my family under many and great obligations. I hope they may not soon be forgotten. The same is also true of a vast many others, that I shall never be able even to thank. I feel disposed to leave the education of my dear children to their mother, and to those dear friends who bear the burden of it; only expressing my earnest hope that they may all become strong, intelligent, expert, industrious, Christian housekeepers. I would wish that, together with other studies, they may thoroughly study Dr. Franklin's “Poor Richard.” I want them to become matter-of-fact women. Perhaps I have said too much about this already; I would not allude to this subject now but for the fact that you had most kindly expressed your generous feelings with regard to it.

I sent the letter to my wife to your care, because the address she sent me from Philadelphia was not sufficiently plain, and left me quite at a loss. I am still in the same predicament, and were I not ashamed to trouble you further, would ask you either to send this to her or a copy of it, in order that she may see something from me often.

I have very many interesting visits from proslavery persons almost daily, and I endeavor to improve them faithfully, plainly, and kindly. I do not think that I ever enjoyed life better than since my confinement here. For this I am indebted to Infinite Grace, and the kind letters of friends from different quarters. I wish I could only know that all my poor family were as much composed and as happy as I. I think that nothing but the Christian religion can ever make any one so much composed.

“My willing soul would stay
In such a frame as this.”

There are objections to my writing many things while here that I might be disposed to write were I under different circumstances. I do not know that my wife yet understands that prison rules require that all I write or receive should first be examined by the sheriff or State's attorney, and that all company I see should be attended by the jailer or some of his assistants. Yet such is the case; and did she know this, it might influence her mind somewhat about the opportunity she would have on coming here. We cannot expect the jailer to devote very much time to us, as he has now a very hard task on his hands. I have just learned how to send letters to my wife near Philadelphia.

I have a son at Akron, Ohio, that I greatly desire to have located in such a neighborhood as yours; and you will pardon me for giving you some account of him, making all needful allowance for the source the account comes from. His name is Jason; he is about thirty-six years old; has a wife and one little boy. He is a very laborious, ingenious, temperate, honest, and truthful man. He is very expert as a gardener, vine-dresser, and manager of fruit-trees, but does not pride himself on account of his skill in anything; always has underrated himself; is bashful and retiring in his habits; is not (like his father) too much inclined to assume and dictate; is too conscientious in his dealings and too tender of people's feelings to get from them his just deserts, and is very poor. He suffered almost everything on the way to and while in Kansas but death, and returned to Ohio not a spoiled but next to a ruined man. He never quarrels, and yet I know that he is both morally and physically brave. He will not deny his principles to save his life, and he “turned not back in the day of battle.” At the battle of Osawatomie he fought by my side. He is a most tender, loving, and steadfast friend, and on the right side of things in general, a practical Samaritan (if not Christian); and could I know that he was located with a population who were disposed to encourage him, without expecting him to pay too dearly in the end for it, I should feel greatly relieved. His wife is a very neat, industrious, prudent woman, who has undergone a severe trial in " the school of affliction."

You make one request of me that I shall not be able to comply with. Am sorry that I cannot at least explain. Your own account of my plans is very well. The son I mentioned has now a small stock of choice vines and fruit-trees, and in them consists his worldly store mostly. I would give you some account of others, but I suppose my wife may have done so.

Your friend,
John Brown.

SOURCES: Franklin B. Sanborn, The Life and Letters of John Brown, p. 599-601

Joseph C. Bustill to William Still, April 28, 1856

HARRISBURG, April 28, ’56.

FRIEND STILL: — Your last came to hand in due season, and 1 am happy to hear of the safe arrival of those gents.

*          *          *          *          *          *          *

I have before me the Power of Attorney of Mr. John S. Fiery, son of Mr. Henry Fiery, of Washington county, Md, the owner of those three men, two women and three children, who arrived in your town on the 24th or 25th of March. He graciously condescends to liberate the oldest in a year, and the remainder in proportional time, if they will come back; or to sell them their time for $1300. He is sick of the job, and is ready to make any conditions. Now, if you personally can get word to them and get them to send him a letter, in my charge, informing him of their whereabouts and prospects, I think it will be the best answer I can make him. He will return here in a week or two, to know what can be done. He offers $500 to see them.

Or if you can send me word where they are, I will endeavor to write to them for his special satisfaction; or if you cannot do either, send me your latest information, for I intend to make him spend a few more dollars, and if possible get a little sicker of this bad job. Do try and send him a few bitter pills for his weak nerves and disturbed mind.

Yours in great haste,
JOS. C. BUSTILL.

SOURCE: William Still, The Underground Railroad: A Record of Facts, Authentic Narratives, Letters &c., p. 323

Wednesday, October 10, 2018

George S. Denison to Salmon P. Chase, September 13, 1862

New Orleans Sept 13th 1862

Dear Sir: The business of the Custom House goes on satisfactorily.

The amount of duties now in my hands is $135,540 72/100. I hope you will soon draw for at least a portion of this amount.

Great excitement prevails in the City on account of news rec'd up to dates of the 3rd from Washington & later from Kentucky. It is believed by secessionists that Washington & Cincinnati are captured. Probably many of these stories are circulated to prevent people from taking the oaths of allegiance1 to the U. S. before the 23 inst. From present appearances, I think Gen. Butler intends to be very severe toward those who fail to take the oath by that time.

The City is healthy. All or nearly all the Rebel troops are withdrawn from this part of the country, for the purpose, as is supposed, of being sent North.

It is known here that reinforcements will be sent hither this Fall or Winter, & it is hoped they will be sufficient to take possession of the whole State. But a small portion of the Sugar crop has been destroyed & there is also a good deal of cotton left, all of which will be exported when an opportunity presents itself.

SOURCE: Diary and correspondence of Salmon P. ChaseAnnual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1902, Vol. 2, p. 314

Commandant Samuel F. Dupont to Gustavus V. Fox, September 29, 1861

Near Wilmington, Del.
29. Sep. 61.    
My Dear Mr. Fox,

After mature deliberation with Drayton, and for reasons public & personal to himself, he prefers a separate command to going in the Wabash — provided you can let him be in my squadron, where his specialty will still be of great service to me — for the ignorance of the new Cannon, pivot guns &c is marvellous.

Will you therefore be so kind as to let him have the Harriet Lane or the Bienville from which Livingston was detached? He prefers the former being the nearest ready and of the lightest draft. She will be very useful to me.

I leave in the morg. My private affairs never having had an hour of my time since the War, it was a godsend to have these two last days. Sherman is after me so I hope he has some good news.

Faithfully Yours,
S. F. Dupont.
G. V. Fox, Esq.
Ass. Sec. Navy.

P.S.

Drayton not having seen his sea service in command, having when out before been similarly attached to a flag officer, he thought he ought to put in for a ship and I yielded — he is a very fine man and a very able officer.

SOURCE: Robert Means Thompson & Richard Wainwright, Editors, Publications of the Naval Historical Society, Volume 9: Confidential Correspondence of Gustavus Vasa Fox, Assistant Secretary of the Navy, 1861-1865, Volume 1, p. 55-6

Diary of Gideon Welles: Monday, March 21, 1864

Wilson returned from New York on Saturday. Called to-day and made report in case of the contractors. Says the evidence is strong and conclusive against them; will be ready with charges and specifications in about a week. I told him it was my wish there should be a speedy trial; I also desired that the wives and counsel of the prisoners might visit them. Whiting, Solicitor of the War Department, called. My letter to the Secretary of War, requesting him to direct Whiting to give this Department his assistance and advice in criminal transactions was objectionable. The Secretary could not direct him, and he would not communicate with the Secretary because the word “direct” was in the note. Told him the mere misuse of a word should not be permitted to embarrass a public measure. That I was willing to substitute another word. He said he would prepare something to meet the case. Tells me that Seward refers questions to him, some affecting Navy captures. This is an eye-opener. The two are cunning, but they expose each other.

Tom1 has gone with Admiral Dahlgren to Fortress Monroe after the body of his son Ulric, expected from Richmond.
_______________

1 Thomas G. Welles, son of the Secretary.

SOURCE: Gideon Welles, Diary of Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Navy Under Lincoln and Johnson, Vol. 1: 1861 – March 30, 1864, p. 544

Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes to the Editor of the Catholic Telegraph, September 5, 1863

Headquarters 1st Brigade, 3D Division, 8th Army
Corps, Camp White, West Virginia,
September 5, 1863.

Editor Catholic Telegraph: — In the Catholic Telegraph of August 26, I am mentioned as the commander of the expedition to Wytheville in which Captain Delany lost his life. This is an error. The expedition was planned by General Scammon and was under the command of Colonel Toland until he was killed early in the action at Wytheville, when (Colonel Powell, the next officer in rank, having been disabled by a severe wound) the command devolved upon Lieutenant-Colonel Franklin of the Thirty-fourth Regiment, O. V. This daring enterprise was so ably conducted, not only in the advance and attack, but also in the retreat, that it is due both to the living and the dead that this correction should be made. Captain Delany was in the brigade under my command until temporarily detached for this dangerous service. Upon hearing of his death I sent the melancholy intelligence of the loss of this most gallant and meritorious officer to his friends in Cincinnati. It was no doubt in consequence of this that the mistake of the Telegraph as to the leadership of the Wytheville expedition occurred.

Respectfully,
R. B. Hayes,
Colonel Commanding.

SOURCE: Charles Richard Williams, editor, Diary and Letters of Rutherford Birchard Hayes, Volume 2, p. 432-3

Lother J. Glenn to Howell Cobb, February 12, 1848

Mcdonough [ga.], Feby. 12, '48.

Dear Sir: . . . I may be mistaken, but such is the fierceness of the opposition of the Whigs to the Mexican war that I apprehend an increase of taxes for the purpose suggested by you, by the last Legislature, would not have gone down well with the people.

They (the Whigs in this county) are even making a “great to do” over the appropriations for bringing home the remains of Cols. McIntosh and Echols. I believe however with Mr. Brown, in the war meeting at New York, that there is a “just God” and that retributive justice will yet overtake them, though just here they seem confounded hard to “run down.”

You ask me to explain the vote in the Senate on the preamble to the Taylor resolutions. I will do it to the best of my recollection, remarking at the outset that I was not one of the “six” who voted against it. If I recollect aright, the Preamble set forth nothing but the military qualifications of Taylor, concluding with the declaration that he had “mind or intellect” enough to make a president. When the vote was about to be taken on the “preamble and resolutions” Mr. Forman (a Democratic Senator) called for a division of the preamble from the resolutions. I begged him to withdraw his call, in order that we might vote upon the whole. Refusing to do so, I thought at the time that I was compelled to vote for the Preamble, though the next morning he and myself, I recollect, expressed our regret that we had done so, and I moved a reconsideration of the whole action of the Senate upon the subject, which was lost by one vote, “Waters voting against it though he had promised me to vote for it. I regret that the resolutions did not pass the House, for then the Whigs of Georgia would have another obstacle in their way of going into a convention. It seems from the “signs of the times” that the contest in the Democratic Convention will lie between Cass and Woodbury. Between them it would be with me a difficult matter to decide. I have always admired the sternness of Mr. Woodbury in advocating the rights of the South, and believe there is no firmer or purer man. Since Genl. Cass's letter to Nicholson made its appearance, I confess much if not all of the doubt and suspicion that before rested upon my mind relative to his soundness on the “Wilmot Proviso” has been removed, and perhaps he would be stronger in the South than Mr. W. or any other Northern man. I am with you, however, in the support of the “nominee” of the convention, provided he be sound on the slavery question. I was much pleased with the “skeleton” of your speech, in the Intelligencer. You brought to light one vote in the house, which I have long wanted to see, and that was the amendment of the New York Member to confine Genl. Taylor in his operations to the east bank of the Rio Grande, or rather to bring him back to the “undisputed territory of the U. States” . . . .

P. S.—I have a serious notion of moving to Atlanta in the course of the present year. What think you of the step, so far as professional prospects are concerned?

SOURCE: Ulrich Bonnell Phillips, Editor, The Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1911, Volume 2: The Correspondence of Robert Toombs, Alexander H. Stephens, and Howell Cobb, p. 95-6

Tuesday, October 9, 2018

Diary of John Beauchamp Jones: October 13, 1863

Gen. Lee's cavalry are picking up some prisoners, several hundreds having already been sent to Richmond. It is said the advance of his army has been delayed several weeks for want of commissary stores, while Commissary-General Northrop's or Major Ruffin's agent Moffitt, it is alleged, has been selling beef (gross) to the butchers at 50 cents per pound, after buying or impressing at from 16 to 20 cents.

Gen. Lee writes that a scout (from Washington ?) informs him that Gen. Gilmore has been ordered to take Charleston at all hazards, and, failing in the attempt, to make a flank movement and seize upon Branchville; which he (Gen. Lee) deems an unlikely feat.

What a change! The young professors and tutors who shouldered their pens and became clerks in the departments are now resigning, and seeking employment in country schools remote from the horrid sounds of war so prevalent in the vicinity of the Capitol, and since they were ordered to volunteer in the local companies, which will probably have some sharp practice in the field. They are intent, however, on “teaching the young idea how to shoot.” The young chiefs of bureaus, being fixed “for life,” did not volunteer.

SOURCE: John Beauchamp Jones, A Rebel War Clerk's Diary at the Confederate States Capital, Volume 2p. 70-1

Diary of John Beauchamp Jones: October 14, 1863

A letter from Gen. Lee to the Secretary of War, dated 11th inst. at Madison C. H., complains of the injury done by the newspapers of Richmond, which contain early accounts of his movements, and are taken quickly (by flag of truce? or Gen. Winder's corps of rogues and cut-throats ?) to the enemy. He says he is endeavoring to strike at Meade, and has already captured, this week, some 600 of the enemy (cavalry), including that number of horses. The Secretary sent the requisite notice to the editors.

Gen. Gilmer, at Charleston, suggests the removal of the guns on the boats in that harbor to land batteries, to be commanded by officers of the navy.

An order has been sent to Gen. S. Jones, West Virginia, for the 8th and 14th Regiments Virginia Cavalry.

SOURCE: John Beauchamp Jones, A Rebel War Clerk's Diary at the Confederate States Capital, Volume 2p. 71

Diary of 1st Sergeant John L. Ransom: December 6, 1864

Thirteen months ago to-day captured one year and one month. Must be something due me from Uncle Sam in wages, by this time. All come in a lump when it does come. No great loss without small gain, and while I have been suffering the long imprisonment my wages have been accumulating. Believe that we are also entitled to ration money while in prison. Pile it on, you can't pay us any too much for this business. This is the land of the blood hound. Are as common as the ordinary cur at the North. Are a noble looking dog except when they are after you, and then they are beastly. Should think that any one of them could whip a man; are very large, strong, and savage looking. should think it would be hard for the negro to run away. See no horses about here at all — all mules and oxen, and even cows hitched up to draw loads. I walk the prison over forty times a day. Everybody knows me, and I hail and am hailed as I walk around, and am asked what I think of the situation. Tell them of my escape and the good time I had, which incites them to do likewise the first opportunity. Occasionally a man here who growls and grumbles, and says and thinks we will never get away, &c. Some would find fault if they were going to be hung. Should think they would compare their condition with that of six months ago and be contented.

SOURCE: John L. Ransom, Andersonville Diary, p. 132-3

Captain Charles Wright Wills: May 26, 1864 – 8 a.m.

Pumpkin Vine Creek, near Dallas, Ga.,
May 26, 1864, 8 a. m.

We did not make more than seven or eight miles yesterday, on account of some bad road that troubled the trains very much. We got into camp at dark, just as a thunderstorm broke. We hurried up our arrangements for the night — kicking out a level place on the hillside to sleep — gathering pine boughs to keep the water from washing us away, and spreading our rubbers over rail frames. Everything just finished, was just pulling our stock of bed clothes over me (one rubber coat), when the brigade bugle sounded the “assembly.” It was dark as pitch and raining far from gently — no use grumbling — so everybody commenced yelping, singing, or laughing. In ten minutes we were under way, and though we didn't move a mile, every man who didn't tumble half a dozen times would command good wages in a circus. We finally formed line of battle on a bushy hillside, and I dropped down on the wet leaves and slept soundly until 1 o'clock, and woke up wet and half frozen, took up my bed and made for a fire and dried out. Do you remember the case when the Saviour commanded a convalescent to take up his bed and walk? I always pitied that man, carrying a four-post bedstead, feathers, straw and covering and failed to see it, but if he had no more bedding than I had. I can better understand it. Heavy cannonading all the p. m. yesterday. It seemed some five or six miles east; don't understand the way matters are shaping at all. Sherman has such a way of keeping everything to himself. The country between Van Wirt and Dallas is very rough, but little of it under cultivation; along this creek are some nice looking farms. The Rebels were going to make a stand, but didn't.

Two p. m.—We started at 8 this morning, and have not made more than one and one-half miles. Soldiers from the front say that Hardee's Corps fronts us two miles ahead, and that he proposes to fight. I have heard no firing that near this morning, but have heard artillery eight or ten miles east. A number of prisoners have been sent back, who all report Hardee at Dallas. I think Thomas now joins our left. McPherson last night rode up to some Rebel pickets, who saluted him with a shower of hot lead, fortunately missing him. Osterhaus' commissary drives along a lot of cattle for the division. Last night he got off the road and drove them into a party of secesh, who took commissary, beef and all. Back at Kingston, a big box came to General Harrow with heavy express charges. An ambulance hauled it 20 miles before it caught up with him, and on opening it he found a lot of stones, a horse's tail, and a block of wood with a horses' face pinned on it labeled, “head and tail of your Potomac horse.” At Van Wirt before we got there the Rebels had a celebration over Lee's capturing Grant and half of his army. There's a great deal of ague in the regiment. We will have a great deal of sickness after the campaign closes. I have only seen one man at home in Georgia who looked capable of doing duty as a soldier. My health is excellent. This creek runs into the Talladega river.

One mile south of Dallas, 2 p. m.

After a lively skirmishing Jeff C. Davis' division of the 14th Army Corps occupied Dallas at 2 p. m. The Rebels retired stubbornly. We passed Dallas about dark, and are now the front and extreme right of the whole army. I guess fighting is over for the night. Two very lively little fights have occurred before dark. The heavy fighting yesterday was Hooker. He whipped and drove them four miles, taking their wounded.

SOURCE: Charles Wright Wills, Army Life of an Illinois Soldier, p. 247-8

Speech of Alexander H. Stephens, February 10, 1861


GENTLEMEN AND FELLOW-CITIZENS, for though we met as strangers from different and independent States, we are once more citizens of a common country. [Applause] Allow me briefly and sincerely to return you my unfeigned thanks for this compliment. The state of my health, my voice and the night air, apart from all other considerations, will prevent me from doing more. This is not the time or the place to discuss those great questions which are now pressing upon our public counsels. We are in a transition condition — in the process of a new formation.

Sufficient to say, that this day a new republic has been born — the Confederate States of America has been ushered into existence, to take its place amongst the nations of the earth — [cheers] — under a temporary or provisional government, it is true; but soon to be followed by one of a permanent character, which, while it surrenders none of our ancient rights and liberties, will secure more perfectly, we trust, the peace, security, and domestic tranquillity that should be the objects of all governments. [Applause.]

What is to be the future of this new government — the fate of this new republic — will depend upon ourselves. Six States only, at present, constitute it — but six stars, as yet, appear in our constellation — more, we trust, will soon be added. By the time of the adoption of the constitution of the permanent government, we may have a number greater than the original thirteen — of the original Union, and with more than three times their population, wealth, and power. [Applause] With such a beginning, the prospect of the future presents strong hopes to the patriot’s heart, for a bright and prosperous career. But what that future shall be, depends, I say, upon ourselves and those who shall come after us. Ours is a republic. And all republics, to be permanent and prosperous, must be supported by the virtue, intelligence, integrity, and patriotism of the people. These are the corner-stones upon which the temple of popular liberty must be constructed, to stand securely and permanently. Resting ours upon these, we need fear nothing from without or from within. With a climate unsurpassed by any on earth; with staples and productions which control the commerce of the world; with institutions, so far as regards our organic and social policy, in strict conformity to nature and the laws of the Creator, whether read in the Book of Inspiration or in the great book of manifestations around us, we have all the natural elements essential to the attainment of the highest degree of honor, glory, and renown. [Applause]

These institutions have been much assailed. It is our mission to vindicate the great truths on which they rest — and with them to exhibit the highest type of civilization which it is possible for human society to reach. In doing this, our policy should be marked by a desire to preserve and maintain peace with all other States and peoples. If this cannot be done, let not the fault lie at our door. While we should make aggressions on none, we should be prepared to repel them if made by others; let it come from whatever quarter it may. [Applause] We ask of all others simply to be let alone, and to be permitted to work after our own safety, security, and happiness, in our own way, without molesting or giving offence to any other people.

Let then peace, fraternity, and liberal commercial relations with all the world, be our motto. [Cheers] With these principles, without any envy toward other States in the line of policy they may mark out for themselves, we will rather invite them to a generous rivalship in all that develops the highest qualities of our nature. [Applause]

With best wishes for you, gentlemen, and the success of our common government, this day announced, I bid you goodnight.

SOURCE: Henry Whitney Cleveland, Alexander H. Stephens, in Public and Private, p. 157-9