Saturday, August 19, 2017

Diary of John Brown, March 16, 1859

Wrote J. B. Grinnell. Wrote A. Hazlett, Indiana P. O., Indiana County, Pa.

SOURCE: Franklin B. Sanborn, The Life and Letters of John Brown, p. 519

Diary of John Brown, March 25, 1859

Wrote wife and children to write me, care of American House, Troy, N. Y. Enclosed draft for $150. J. H. Kagi, Dr.: To cash for Carpenter, five dollars. Clinton Gilroy, Esq., New London, Conn.

[Between the dates March 25 and June 18, Brown was at Peterboro' (April 11-14), at Concord (May 7-9), at Boston (May 9-June 3), and at North Elba (June 6-9).]

SOURCE: Franklin B. Sanborn, The Life and Letters of John Brown, p. 519

Diary of John Brown, June 18, 1859

West Andover, Ohio. Borrowed John's old compass, and left my own, together with Gunley's book, with him at West Andover; also borrowed his small Jacob staff; also gave him for expenses fifteen dollars; write him, under cover to Horace Lindsley, West Andover. Henry C. Carpenter.

SOURCE: Franklin B. Sanborn, The Life and Letters of John Brown, p. 519

Diary of John Brown, June 21, 1859

Gave J. H. Kagi fifty dollars for expenses at Cleveland.

SOURCE: Franklin B. Sanborn, The Life and Letters of John Brown, p. 519

Diary of John Brown, June 23, 1859

Wrote wife and children, and enclosed five dollars. Also wrote J. Henrie Kagi to inquire at Bedford for letters. If none found, he will wait.

SOURCE: Franklin B. Sanborn, The Life and Letters of John Brown, p. 520

Diary of John Brown, June 23, 1859

Wrote J. Henrie that he will find a line at Chambersburg, or three Smiths and Anderson.

SOURCE: Franklin B. Sanborn, The Life and Letters of John Brown, p. 520

Diary of 1st Lieutenant Lemuel A. Abbott: Monday, December 26, 1864

Received official information from General Sherman this morning that he had taken Savannah, Ga. with thirty-three thousand bales of cotton, one hundred and fifty heavy guns, and eight hundred prisoners; one hundred shotted guns fired in honor of it here; Thomas reports seventeen thousand prisoners, eighty-one guns, etc., taken from General Hood; no news from the Shenandoah Valley; rumored in camp that the Eighth Corps is at Dutch Gap; hut covered and banked up; regimental dress parade to-night; mud drying up; reckon the Confederacy is crumbling rapidly.

SOURCE: Lemuel Abijah Abbott, Personal Recollections and Civil War Diary, 1864, p. 244-5

Diary of 1st Lieutenant Lemuel A. Abbott: Tuesday, December 27, 1864

Quite decent under foot; hut about done; shall move into it to-morrow night. Captain Merritt Barber has been over and turned over Company E property to me; good brigade dress parade this evening; had a call from Lieut. Pierce of the Second Division to-night; have written Levi Meader this evening; am to be brigade officer of the guard to-morrow.

SOURCE: Lemuel Abijah Abbott, Personal Recollections and Civil War Diary, 1864, p. 245

Diary of 1st Lieutenant Lemuel A. Abbott: Wednesday, December 28, 1864

Mounted brigade guard at 8.30 o'clock a. m. as officer of the guard; northeast chilly wind; brigade dress parade this evening; Tenth Vermont worked on breastworks this forenoon; finished my cabin today; wrote brother Charles this evening; received a letter and diary for 1865 from Cousin Pert; weather very rough to-night.

SOURCE: Lemuel Abijah Abbott, Personal Recollections and Civil War Diary, 1864, p. 245

Diary of 1st Lieutenant Lemuel A. Abbott: Thursday, December 29, 1864

Weather has moderated since morning; quite muddy; had two hours battalion drill; think it a big thing on ice. In my opinion we would look better in the house, and I am sure we should feel better; got a letter from Dr. J. H. Jones to-night. He was married Nov. 8, 1864; received our muster and pay rolls today; have commenced a part of two; hard cold north wind to-night. Sergeant Charles of the One Hundred and Fifty-first New York is here to-night.

SOURCE: Lemuel Abijah Abbott, Personal Recollections and Civil War Diary, 1864, p. 245

Diary of 1st Lieutenant Lemuel A. Abbott: Friday, December 30, 1864

Worked all day on muster and pay rolls; mild south wind; storm brewing. Captain G. E. Davis drilled the battalion this afternoon in the manual of arms; muddy brigade dress parade this evening; hardly a gun to be heard on picket to-night; no letters or news; retired at 11 o'clock p. m. tired.

SOURCE: Lemuel Abijah Abbott, Personal Recollections and Civil War Diary, 1864, p. 246

Diary of 1st Lieutenant Lemuel A. Abbott: Saturday, December 31, 1864

Well, here I am again in winter quarters, but how different from twelve months ago. I confess, though, that my prayer has been answered, the year having been passed as happily by me as could have been expected under the circumstances. I have been called upon to pass through a great many ordeals but with God's grace have come out alive. I shudder when I think how many have been killed out of our little band, yet I am spared perhaps for some good purpose; I hope so, anyway.*  I'm about to commence another year. I feel sad to bid the old one farewell. It has been a strenuous, eventful and historic one. May the next end the war, if it is God's will.
_______________

* Possibly I was spared during the Civil War to be God's medium to civilize the Indians — the most distinguished service of my life — as I was greatly honored in 1877-78, by being selected from the army to study them, and recommend what would be the best thing to do to civilize and take them from the war path, which I did, and the government adopted my plan, which was successful, in opposition to most of the leading generals of the army, as they deemed it impracticable. The history of this can be found in Addenda No. 2, pp. 1057-80, Vol. II, Descendants of George Abbott of Rowley, Mass., which can be found in most leading libraries.

SOURCE: Lemuel Abijah Abbott, Personal Recollections and Civil War Diary, 1864, p. 246

Diary of 2nd Lieutenant Luman Harris Tenney: August 1, 1863

Reached Columbus about 3 A. M. Went to Niel House and rested two or three hours and breakfasted. Did business. Receipted for property. Left horse and equipments at Q. M. Burrs. All very pleasant. Left C. at 3:40. Took dinner at Mrs. Crarey's. Pleasant time. From Wellington rode across in carriage. Colored man company. Oberlin about 10:30. Happy boys. Saw Minnie and John.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 81

Diary of 2nd Lieutenant Luman Harris Tenney: August 2, 1863

Didn't rise till quite late. Thede went to Sabbath School. I remained at home, resting and visiting with Ma. Minnie came down after S. School. Good visit with Ma and the girls. Thede and I went to the Second Church in the evening. Saw Delos. John's after meeting.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 81-2

Diary of 2nd Lieutenant Luman Harris Tenney: August 3, 1863

Spent the forenoon at home and doing chores. Spent a little time reading. After dinner called on Fannie. Found her the same lovely creature as of old. One may well feel rich in the possession of such a friend. I do. In the evening attended Young People's Meeting. Did me good.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 82

Diary of 2nd Lieutenant Luman Harris Tenney: August 4, 1863

Right after breakfast got a livery team and Thede and I were on our way to Amherst. Called at Helen's (Helen Rood), then Grandpa's. He seemed affected to see us. Growing old or rather young again (in mind). Stopped at Mr. Lysell's for dinner. Uncle Milo there. Stayed at Elyria three hours. Good visits with Floy, and Mr. and Mrs. Williams. Back, and in evening at Mr. Haynes' — good time.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 82

Diary of 2nd Lieutenant Luman Harris Tenney: August 5, 1863

Went to Cleveland in morning on train. Did some shopping and then went to Uncle's. Mrs. Col. Webb, cousin of Ma's, there. Had a splendid visit with her. Very plain but rich and intelligent. Went home on the P. M. train. Attended Young Ladies' Literary. Miss Everson did well, natural. In the evening had pleasant visit at Fannie's.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 82

Diary of 2nd Lieutenant Luman Harris Tenney: August 6, 1863

Engaged a carriage for the afternoon for a ride with Fannie. Went to meeting with Minnie and Ellie. Pres. Finney preached admirably. Was off with Fannie at 1:30 P. M. Drove by Boynton's S. Amherst to Lake. Enjoyed an hour's stroll on the shore and ate nuts in the grove. Then home again, calling at Mary's (Aunt Mary Hitchcock) to see the little boy. Home at 8 o'clock.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 82

Friday, August 18, 2017

In The Review Queue: Emory Upton, Misunderstood Reformer

by David J. Fitzpatrick

Emory Upton (1839–1881) is widely recognized as one of America’s most influential military thinkers. His works—The Armies of Asia and Europe and The Military Policy of the United States—fueled the army’s intellectual ferment in the late nineteenth century and guided Secretary of War Elihu Root’s reforms in the early 1900s. Yet as David J. Fitzpatrick contends, Upton is also widely misunderstood as an antidemocratic militaristic zealot whose ideas were “too Prussian” for America. In this first full biography in nearly half a century, Fitzpatrick, the leading authority on Upton, radically revises our view of this important figure in American military thought.

A devout Methodist farm boy from upstate New York, Upton attended the United States Military Academy at West Point and served in the Civil War. His use of a mass infantry attack to break the Confederate lines at Spotsylvania Courthouse in 1864 identified him as a rising figure in the U.S. Army. Upton’s subsequent work on military organizations in Asia and Europe, commissioned by Commanding General William T. Sherman, influenced the army’s turn toward a European, largely German ideal of soldiering as a profession. Yet it was this same text, along with Upton’s Military Policy of the United States, that also propelled the misinterpretations of Upton—first by some contemporaries, and more recently by noted historians Stephen Ambrose and Russell Weigley. By showing Upton’s dedication to the ideal of the citizen-soldier and placing him within the context of contemporary military, political, and intellectual discourse, Fitzpatrick shows how Upton’s ideas clearly grew out of an American military-political tradition.

Emory Upton: Misunderstood Reformer clarifies Upton’s influence on the army by offering a new and necessary understanding of the military’s intellectual direction at a critical juncture in American history.

About the Author

David J. Fitzpatrick is Professor of History at Washtenaw Community College in Ann Arbor, Michigan. His articles have been published in the Journal of Military History.

ISBN 978-0806157207, University of Oklahoma Press, © 2017, Hardcover, 344 pages, 12 Color Maps, Photographs & Illustrations, End Notes, Bibliography & Index. $39.95.  To Purchase the book click HERE.

Meeting Of Minute Men

CALHOUN’S MILLS, Oct. 30th, 1860.

MR. EDITOR:  Pursuant to a call made by the Executive Committee, a meeting was held at Calhoun’s Mills on Saturday last for the purpose of forming a Company of Minute Men.  The meeting was organized by calling Hon. A. Burt to the chair and appointing O. T. Porcher, Sec’y.

Col. Marshall being present, in behalf of the Executive Committee, explained in a few words, the object of the organization: said that he was sorry that it had been reported that it had anything to do with party views: that it was simply an organization for our own safety, and the safety of our wives and children. He was followed by Gen. Smith and Col. Talman, who warmly advocated the necessity and duty of this move.  When they had concluded Hon. A. Burt was called upon for his views touching the political aspect of our country, and responded in a speech, full of sound sense and patriotism, and called upon every man to awake to the danger of our situation, and prepare for the emergency.

A committee of five was then appointed for soliciting names for the Company – committee consist of Messrs. J. J. Lee, O. T. Porcher, E. F. Parker, W. D. Mars, Wm. McKelvey.

A committee was appointed for preparing the Constitution for Government of the Company of Minute Men, consisting of Col. Talman, Wm. Taggart, Capt. Jones, Wm. McBryde, and James McKelvey.

It was agreed that a meeting be held at the same place on the 2d Saturday of November, for organizing said company, and that a dinner be furnished for the occasion.

It was then moved that the proceedings be published in the Press and Banner.

HON. A. BURT, Ch’n.
O. T. PORCHER, Sec’y.

— Published in The Abbeville Press, Abbeville, South Carolina, Friday Morning, November 9, 1860, p. 2

William Penn Clarke

WILLIAM PENN CLARKE was born in Baltimore, Maryland, October 1, 1817. At the age of fourteen he went to Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, and learned the printing business. In 1838 he came west on foot at the age of twenty-one and reaching Cincinnati established a daily newspaper, and later became editor of the Logan Gazette, in Ohio. In 1844 he went farther west and located at Iowa City where he was admitted to the bar in 1845. He was a ready writer and contributed frequently to the newspapers on the slavery issue, being a “free-soiler” in politics. He attended the Pittsburg National Convention which took the preliminary steps toward the organization of the Republican party in 1856, acting as one of the secretaries. At the National Republican Convention in 1860, Mr. Clarke was one of the delegates from Iowa and was chosen chairman of the delegation. He soon after purchased the State Press at Iowa City and took an active part in the antislavery contest leading to the Kansas war. As a member of the National Kansas Committee he sent a company of men to aid the citizens of that Territory in expelling the “Border Ruffian” invaders. He was for many years the keeper of a station on the “underground railroad” and was fearless in aiding fugitive slaves to freedom, cooperating with John Brown during his operations in Iowa. Mr. Clarke prepared the original ordinances for the government of Iowa City. He was reporter of the decisions of the Iowa Supreme Court for five years. As an influential member of the Constitutional Convention of 1857 he acted as chairman of the committee on judiciary. Early in the Civil War Mr. Clarke was appointed paymaster in the army, serving until 1866. He was then chosen chief clerk in the Interior Department at Washington, resigning when Andrew Johnson began his war on the Republican party, and returning to the practice of law in Washington, he died February 7, 1903.

SOURCE: Benjamin F. Gue, History of Iowa from the Earliest Times to the Beginning of the Twentieth Century, Volume 4, p. 52-3

Samuel Washington Johnson to his Wife

My Dear Wife I now embrace this golden opportunity of writing a few Lines to inform you that I am well at present engoying good health and hope that these few lines may find you well also My dearest wife I have Left you and now I am in a foreign land about fourteen hundred miles from you but though my wife my thoughts are upon you all the time My dearest Frances I hope you will remember me now gust as same as you did when I were there with you because my mind are with you night and day the Love that I bear for you in my breast is greater than I thought it was if I had thought I had so much Love for you I dont think I ever could Left being I have escape I and has fled into a land of freedom I can but stop and look over my past Life and say what a fool I was for staying in bondage as Long My dear wife I dont want you to get married before you send me some letters because I never shall get married until I see you again My mind dont deceive and it appears to me as if I shall see you again at my time of writing this letter I am desitute of money I have not got in no business yet but when I do get into business I shall write you and also remember you Tell my Mother and Brother and all enquiring friends that I am now safe in free state I cant tell where I am at present but Direct your Letters to Mr. William Still in Philadelphia and I will get them Answer this as soon as you can if you please for if you write the same day you receive it it will take a fortnight to reach me No more to relate at present but still remain your affectionate husband Mr. Still please defore this piece out if you please 


Samuel Washington Johnson.

SOURCE: William Still, The Underground Railroad: A Record of Facts, Authentic Narratives, Letters &c., p. 159

Diary of John Brown, March 10, 1859

Wrote Augustus Wattles to enclose to E. and A. King; also wrote Frederick Douglass at Detroit; also wrote W. Penn Clarke, Iowa City; also C P. Tidd. Gave Kagi $1 25.

SOURCE: Franklin B. Sanborn, The Life and Letters of John Brown, p. 519

Senator Salmon P. Chase to Charles Sumner, January 28, 1850

Washington, Jan. 28, '50.

My Dear Sumner: You ask for a word of cheer. The response must come from a sad heart. I have just heard the tidings of the death of a beloved sister, than whose a sweeter, kinder, more affectionate heart never yearned towards a brother. You may remember that when I was in Boston last fall I went up to New Hampshire to see her. Little thought I it was our last meeting on earth. But God has so willed it — would that I could say more truly from the heart God's will be done!

My wife, too, is still very ill; but I hope is mending slowly. I fear, however, her constitution will never recover wholly from the shock it has sustained.

What a vale of misery this world is! To me it has been emphatically so. Death has pursued me incessantly ever since I was twenty-five. My path has been — how terribly true it is — through the region of his shadow. Sometimes I feel as if I could give up — as if I must give up. And then after all I rise and press on. Have you ever experienced these feelings? I should faint certainly if I did not believe that God in mercy as well as wisdom orders all things well, and will not suffer those who trust in Him through Christ to be utterly cast down.

There is much commotion here, and some feel discouraged. Our cause is just and it will triumph; no matter how the territorial issue may be decided. I still think the Proviso will pass the House, and I think that it will pass the Senate. The South seems determined to insist on territorial government being instituted; and I do not see how the question can be avoided. If it comes fully to a vote I shall believe we shall carry it until the result shall teach me the contrary.

Cordially your friend,
[Salmon P. Chase.]
P. S. You must go to wah, all hands, in Palfrey's district.

SOURCE: Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1902, Vol. 2, p. 200

Diary of Gideon Welles: Saturday, August 29, 1863

Have reluctantly come to the conclusion to visit the navy yards. It is a matter of duty, and the physicians and friends insist it will be conducive to health and strength. If I could go quietly it would give me pleasure, but I have a positive dislike to notoriety and parade, — not because I dislike well-earned applause, not because I do not need encouragement, but there is so much insincerity in their showy and ostentatious parades, where the heartless and artful are often the most prominent.

The President cordially approves my purpose, which he thinks and says will do me good and strengthen me for coming labors.

Chase has been to me, urging the dispatch of several vessels to seize the armored ships which are approaching completion in Great Britain and which may be captured off the English coast. The objections are: first, we cannot spare the ships; second, to place a naval force in British waters for the purpose indicated would be likely to embroil us with that power; third, the Secretary of State assures me in confidence that the armored vessels building in England will not be allowed to leave. This third objection, which, if reliable, is in itself a sufficient reason for non-action on my part, I am not permitted to communicate to the Secretary of the Treasury, who is a part of the government and ought to know the fact. It may be right that the commercial community, who are deeply interested and who, of course, blame me for not taking more active and energetic measures, should be kept in ignorance of the true state of the case, but why withhold the truth from the Secretary of the Treasury? If he is not to be trusted, he is unfit for his place; but it is not because he is not to be trusted. These little things injure the Administration, and are in themselves wrong. I am, moreover, compelled to rely on the oral, unwritten statement of the Secretary of State, who may be imposed upon and deceived, who is often mistaken; and, should those vessels escape, the blame for not taking preliminary steps to seize them will fall heavily on me. It grieves Chase at this moment and lessens me in his estimation, because I am doing nothing against these threatened marauders and can give him no sufficient reasons why I am not.

The subject of a reunion is much discussed. Shall we receive back the Rebel States? is asked of me daily. The question implies that the States have seceded, — actually gone out from us, — that the Union is at present dissolved, which I do not admit. People have rebelled, some voluntarily, some by compulsion. Discrimination should be made in regard to them. Some should be hung, some exiled, some fined, etc., and all who remain should do so on conditions satisfactory and safe. I do not trouble myself about the Emancipation Proclamation, which disturbs so many. If New York can establish slavery or imprison for debt, so can Georgia. The States are and must be equal in political rights. No one State can be restricted or denied privileges or rights which the others possess, or have burdens or conditions imposed from which its co-States are exempt. The Constitution must be amended, and our Union and system of government changed, to reach what is demanded by extreme men in this matter.

SOURCE: Gideon Welles, Diary of Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Navy Under Lincoln and Johnson, Vol. 1: 1861 – March 30, 1864, p. 428-30

Diary of Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes: Tuesday, January 6, 1863

Very fine weather for a week past, and I am busy digging ditches, building walks, roads, bridges, and quarters. A pleasant occupation. Great fighting at Murfreesboro; heavy losses on our side, but the general result not yet known. Rainy today. I must build a skiff to get over to the brick house to headquarters easily.

During past year we have received sixty-eight recruits; discharged sixty-six; killed in action forty-seven; died of wounds twenty; died of disease fifteen. [Total] deaths eighty-two. Total loss aggregates one hundred and forty-eight. Net loss eighty.

SOURCE: Charles Richard Williams, editor, Diary and Letters of Rutherford Birchard Hayes, Volume 2, p. 386

Thursday, August 17, 2017

Diary of 1st Sergeant John L. Ransom: June 23, 1864

My coverlid nobly does duty, protecting us from the sun's hot rays by day and the heavy dews at night. Have no doubt but it has saved my life many times. Never have heard anything from Hendryx since his escape. Either got away to our lines or shot. Rebels recruiting among us for men to put in their ranks. None will go — yes, I believe one Duffy has gone with them. Much fighting. Men will fight as long as they can stand up. A father fights his own son not ten rods from us. Hardly any are strong enough to do much damage except the raiders, who get enough to eat and are in better condition than the rest. Four or five letters were delivered to their owners. Were from their homes. Remarkable, as I believe this is the first mail since our first coming here. Something wrong. Just shake in my boots — shoes, I mean, (plenty of room) when I think what July and August will do for us. Does not seem to me as if any can stand it After all, it's hard killing a man. Can stand most anything.

SOURCE: John L. Ransom, Andersonville Diary, p. 70

Diary of John Beauchamp Jones: June 29, 1863

Dispatches from the West show that we still held Vicksburg at the last dates; and, moreover, Gen. Taylor (son of Zachary Taylor) had stormed and taken the enemy's fortifications at Berwick's Bay, with the bayonet. We took 1000 prisoners, 10 large cannon, and many stores. Also that we had taken Thibbodauxville, and have thus cut off Banks from New Orleans.

5 O'clock P.m.—The city is now in good humor, but not wild with exultation. We have what seems pretty authentic intelligence of the taking of Harrisburg, the capital of Pennsylvania, the City of York, etc. etc. This comes on the flag of truce boat, and is derived from the enemy themselves. Lee will not descend to the retaliation instigated by petty malice; but proclaim to the inhabitants that all we desire is Peace, not conquest.

From Vicksburg we have further information that, in springing his mine, Grant destroyed hundreds of his own men, and did us no injury. Also that a battery we have above Vicksburg had fired into some passing transports, doing great damage to life and boats. The troops landed, and failed to take the battery by assault, losing hundreds in addition.

SOURCE: John Beauchamp Jones, A Rebel War Clerk's Diary at the Confederate States Capital, Volume 1, p. 365-6

Captain Charles Wright Wills: November 17, 1862

Camp at Lagrange, Tenn., November 17, 1862.

Our whole regiment went on picket Saturday evening. Didn't reach our posts until 9:30 p. m. Had plenty of fresh meat next day (notwithstanding stringent orders), and beautiful weather. Our going on picket saved us a tramp of 22 miles, for which I am duly grateful. They had a scare at Summerville while we were out; our brigade (except we who were on duty) were started out, nobody hurt, happy to chronicle. Squads of prisoners taken by our cavalry are constantly arriving from the front. Very little skirmishing though, mostly unarmed citizens, etc. There are an immense number of slaves at the different military posts through here and in this vicinity. The officials are using them to good advantage in securing the large crops of cotton to the Government. The camps are overflowing with them, and their music and dancing furnish the boys with amusement unlimited. Don't have half the fun with the natives that I used to, in fact haven't spoken to any since I have been out this time. Guess I'm steadying down some. Like soldiering as well as ever but the novelty's gone, and its more like a regular way of living to me than a spree as it used to be. Don't see any immediate prospect of a move, but a chap can't tell what any symptom means here. I'd bet several times that we're on the point of starting. We have been reviewed twice within four days by Grant, McPherson, McKean, Logan and Pugh.

SOURCE: Charles Wright Wills, Army Life of an Illinois Soldier, p. 141

Diary of 1st Lieutenant Lemuel A. Abbott: Monday, December 19, 1864

Colonel W. W. Henry started for Vermont this morning; most of the officers of the regiment went to the cars to see him off; commenced raining about 8 o'clock a. m.; didn't rain long; men very busy on their cabins; got a Washington Chronicle to-night; good news from Generals Sherman and Thomas, the latter having captured fifty eight guns and five thousand prisoners.

SOURCE: Lemuel Abijah Abbott, Personal Recollections and Civil War Diary, 1864, p. 242

Diary of 1st Lieutenant Lemuel A. Abbott: Tuesday, December 20, 1864

It's rumored we are to move camp in a day or two; wish they would allow us to stay here; had monthly inspection at 3 o'clock p. m.; men in good condition considering. Captain Day was our inspecting officer. Captain G. E. Davis has gone to City Point; returned at 9 o'clock p. m.; got me two wool blankets; rumored in camp Jeff Davis is dead; don't believe it.

SOURCE: Lemuel Abijah Abbott, Personal Recollections and Civil War Diary, 1864, p. 242-3

Diary of 1st Lieutenant Lemuel A. Abbott: Wednesday, December 21, 1864

Rained hard most of the day from 7 o'clock a. m.; have suspended work on the huts; expect to move in a few days; very muddy in camp; clear, cold north wind and freezing at 9 o'clock p. m.; news still good from Sherman and Thomas.

SOURCE: Lemuel Abijah Abbott, Personal Recollections and Civil War Diary, 1864, p. 243

Diary of 1st Lieutenant Lemuel A. Abbott: Thursday, December 22, 1864

Cold and windy; froze about four inches last night. Captain Bartruff has been over to call on us; says that we will have to move over with the rest of the brigade to-morrow, but why were we told to build quarters here? Pretty rough, but we shall have to stand it! Glorious news from General Thomas tonight; has captured sixty-one pieces of artillery and nine thousand prisoners. We move at 9 o'clock a. m. to-morrow.

SOURCE: Lemuel Abijah Abbott, Personal Recollections and Civil War Diary, 1864, p. 243

Diary of 1st Lieutenant Lemuel A. Abbott: Friday, December 23, 1864

Moved at 8 o'clock a. m.; weather freezing cold; only seven teams at work with us; regiment excused from brigade dress parade this evening. It's very cold to-night; shall sleep on Captain G. E. Davis's floor; men are without quarters; should think they would freeze. It's rumored Savannah is captured; doubt it.

SOURCE: Lemuel Abijah Abbott, Personal Recollections and Civil War Diary, 1864, p. 243-4

Diary of 1st Lieutenant Lemuel A. Abbott: Saturday, December 24, 1864

Very cold, but more comfortable than yesterday; commenced putting up my cabin this morning; not quite up to-night; regimental dress parade this evening. General Butler's fleet is off Wilmington; Savannah, Ga. reported captured through rebel sources; have written to David Mower, and to Washington for my valise; weather moderating; all's quiet in front.

SOURCE: Lemuel Abijah Abbott, Personal Recollections and Civil War Diary, 1864, p. 244

Diary of 1st Lieutenant Lemuel A. Abbott: Sunday, December 25, 1864

Rained all night; very muddy; working hard to finish my house by to-morrow night; had 10.30 o'clock a. m. Company inspection; various rumors about General Sherman; news good from General Thomas; good regimental dress parade this evening.

SOURCE: Lemuel Abijah Abbott, Personal Recollections and Civil War Diary, 1864, p. 244

Diary of Sergeant Major Luman Harris Tenney: July 26, 1863

Columbus, Ohio. At noon moved on. Passed through Groveport and reached Columbus a little before dark. Passed Camp Thomas and reached Camp Worthington about 11. Had hardly fed the horses when a squad of men came for us. Kept us under guard. Whole town and Militia near Columbus turned out. Morgan's advance reported at Worthington. Ludicrous.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 80

Diary of Sergeant Major Luman Harris Tenney: July 27, 1863

Guards and team came for us soon after breakfast and gave us a ride to Columbus. Provo. Marshal examined us and sent us to guard house, supposed to be implicated in stealing horses. Thede and I do not feel worried at all, for we know we are in the right. The Sergt. Major of the 18th Regulars was the man who caused us the trouble — a Dutch upstart with little brains — was all in a tremor and frightened.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 80-1

Diary of Sergeant Major Luman Harris Tenney: July 28, 1863

Passed the night very quietly in guard house. Deserters and drunken men filled the room. Novel place. Before noon went down to Provost and saw Mrs. Mills. At 3 P. M. we took the train under guard to Cincinnati. Lawyer Hall came with S. R. N. Pleasant ride down. Reached the city and after marching half an hour took quarters on fifth floor of Military Prison. Felt sorry for S. R. and friends. Felt jolly enough myself. Floor filthy and no blankets.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 81

Diary of 2nd Lieutenant Luman Harris Tenney: July 29, 1863

About 9 A. M. some coffee. Bought some cakes. Major A. B. N. called early and assured S. R. that all was right. Seemed good to see him. At noon went with A. B. and Mr. Hall to dinner at Gibson House. Got shaved and went at 3 to report to Gen. Cox. Released, without examination. Telegraphed to Columbus and received reply that I had been commissioned, 2nd Lt. Got me a suit of clothes. Went round with Thede. Took a bath at the Burnett house. Purington, Kautz and others laughed at me — for the scrape. Regiment came in and camped. Received some congratulations.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 81

Diary of 2nd Lieutenant Luman Harris Tenney: July 30, 1863

After some shopping and looking around went on street cars to Regt. Met it and came back. Found everything all right. Went around with Tod. Many boys congratulated me, did me good. Received two good letters from Fannie and one from home. What a contrast between today and yesterday. In the afternoon helped some about filling furloughs for boys. Applied for leave of absence for ten days. Boys on tiptoe. Saw Bushnell and Shorty who was in Oberlin the Sen. Prep. year. Good men. Went to Wood's theatre to hear Minstrels. Went for ice cream with Maj. Nettleton.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 81

Diary of 2nd Lieutenant Luman Harris Tenney: July 31, 1863

Didn't arise until nearly eight. Passed rather a restless night on account of rash. Went over to Covington and made arrangements for barracks for 2nd O. V. C. Only 30 allowed to go home now. Some disappointed. Called on A. B. in P. M. Took me to ice cream saloon and did the fair thing. Got leave of absence. Rained some. Off at 10 P. M. Jolly boys.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 81

South Carolina Legislature.

The South Carolina Legislature, in pursuance of the Proclamation of the Governor, assembled in Columbia on Monday last.

In the Senate, the Hon. F. J. MOSES was called to the Chair, certificates of election read, and members duly qualified.  The Hon. W. D. PORTER was unanimously elected President, and upon assuming the Chair, addressed the body in a short impressive speech.

Gen. W. E. MARTIN was then elected Clerk, A. D. GOODWYN Reading Clerk, and —— GAILLARD Door-keeper.

In the House of Representatives, Mr. BOYLSTON, of Fairfield, upon motion of Mr. BUIST, of Charleston, was called to the Chair, for the purpose of organization.  The certificates of election were read, and the members elected duly sworn in.  A ballot was ordered for the election of Speaker, and Gen. SIMONS having received 110 votes – all the votes cast – was declared unanimously elected.  Upon being conducted to the Chair, the Speaker returned his thanks in feeling and appropriate terms.

The following message was received from His Excellency the Governor, and read by his Private Secretary, Col. Watts.  It commanded the earnest attention of the house.

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT,}
COLUMBIA, S. C., Nov. 5, 1860.}
Gentlemen of the Senate and the House of Representatives:

The Act of Congress passed in the year 1846, enacts that “the Electors of President and Vice President shall be appointed on Tuesday next after the first Monday of the month of November of the year in which they are to be appointed.”  The annual meeting of the Legislature of South Carolina, by a constitutional provision, will not take place until the fourth Monday in November instant, and I have considered it my duty, under the authority conferred upon me to convene the Legislature on extraordinary occasions, to convene you, that you may on tomorrow appoint the number of Electors of President and Vice President to which this state is entitled.

Under ordinary circumstances, your duty could soon be discharged, by the election of Electors, representing the choice of the people of the State; but in view of the threatening aspect of affairs, and the strong probability of the election to the Presidency of a sectional candidate, by a party committed to the support of measures which, if carried out, inevitably destroy our equality in the Union, and ultimately reduce the Southern States to mere provinces of a consolidated despotism, to be governed by a fixed majority in Congress, hostile to our institutions, and fatally bent upon our ruin, I would respectfully suggest that the Legislature remain in session, and take such action as well prepare the State for any emergency that may arise.

That an expression of the will of the people may be obtained on a question involving such momentous consequences, I would earnestly recommend, that in the event of the election of Abraham Lincoln to the Presidency, a Convention of the people of this state be immediately called to determine “the mode and measure of redress.”

My own opinions of what the Convention should do are of little moment; but believing that the time has arrived when every one, however humble he may be, should express his opinions in the unmistakable language, I am constrained to say, that the only alternative left in my judgment, is the secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union.  The indications from many of the Southern States justify the conclusion that the secession of South Carolina will be immediately followed, if not adopted simultaneoulsy by them, and ultimately by the entire South.  The long desired co operation of the other States, having similar institutions, for which the State has been waiting, seems to be nearer at hand, and, if we are true to ourselves, will soon be realized.  The State has, with great unanimity, declared that she has the right [peaceably] to secede, and no power on earth can rightfully prevent it.  If, in the exercise of arbitrary power, and forgetful of the lessons of history, the Government of the United States should attempt coercion, it will become our solemn duty to meet force by force; and whatever may be the decision of the Convention representing the sovereignty of the State – and amenable to no earthly tribunal – shall, during the remainder of my administration, be carried out to the letter, regardless of any hazards that may surround its execution.  I would also respectfully recommend a thorough reorganization of the Militia, so as to place the whole military force of the State in a position to be sued at the shortest notice, and with the greatest efficiency.  Every man in the State, between the ages of eighteen and forty five, should be well armed with the most effective weapons of modern warfare, and all available means of the State used for that purpose.

In addition to this general preparation, I would also recommend that the service of ten thousand volunteers be immediately accepted; that they be organized and drilled by officers chosen by themselves, and hold themselves in readiness to be called on upon by the shortest notice.

With this preparation for defence – and with all the hallowed memories of past achievements – and with our love of liberty and hatred of tyranny – and with the knowledge that we are contending for the safety of our homes and firesides – we confidently appeal to the Disposer of all human events, and safely trust our cause in His keeping.

WM. H. GIST.

In the House Mr. Cunningham (of Charleston) offered a resolution authorizing the Governor to use the appropriation of $100,000 ordered by the Acts of 1859, for any proper purpose of common defence and peace requirements.

The recommendations of the Governors message were made the special order for Thursday at 1 o’clock in the Senate and House.  In the House W. C. INGLIS has been elected Reading Clerk; A. P. NICHOLSON messenger, and C. M. GRAY Door-keeper.

— Published in The Abbeville Press, Abbeville, South Carolina, Friday Morning, November 9, 1860, p. 2

Jermain Wesley Loguen to William Still, October 5, 1856

SYRACUSE, Oct. 5, 1856.

DEAR FRIEND STILL:— I write to you for Mrs. Susan Bell, who was at your city some time in September last. She is from Washington city. She left her dear little children behind (two children). She is stopping in our city, and wants to hear from her children very much indeed. She wishes to know if you have heard from Mr. Biglow, of Washington city. She will remain here until she can hear from you. She feels very anxious about her children, I will assure you. I should have written before this, but I have been from home much of the time since she came to our city. She wants to know if Mr. Biglow has heard anything about her husband. If you have not written to Mr. Biglow, she wishes you would. She sends her love to you and your dear family. She says that you were all kind to her. and she does not forget it. You will direct your letter to me, dear brother, and I will see that she gets it.

Miss F. E. Watkins left our house yesterday for Ithaca, and other places in that part of the State. Frederick Douglass, Wm. J. Watkins and others were with us last week; Gerritt Smith with others. Miss Watkins is doing great good in our part of the State. We think much indeed of her. She is such a good and glorious speaker, that we are all charmed with her. We have had thirty-one fugitives in the last twenty-seven days; but you, no doubt, have had many more than that. I hope the good Lord may bless you and spare you long to do good to the hunted and outraged among our brethren.

Yours truly,
J. W. LOGUEN,
Agent of the Underground Rail Road.

SOURCE: William Still, The Underground Railroad: A Record of Facts, Authentic Narratives, Letters &c., p. 158

John Brown, December 2, 1859

Charlestown, Va., Dec. 2, 1859.

I, John Brown, am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away but with blood. I had, as I now think vainly, flattered myself that without very much bloodshed it might be done.

SOURCE: Franklin B. Sanborn, The Life and Letters of John Brown, p. 517

Senator Salmon P. Chase to Edward S. Hamlin, January 17, 1850

Washington, Jany 17, 1850.

Mr Dear Sir, I received your last letter at Philadelphia. I am not certain whether I replied to it or not. The fact is the severe illness of my dear wife, presenting varied symptoms from day to day, not on the whole very encouraging nor absolutely discouraging, gives me so much uneasiness and such constant employment of my thoughts, that I hardly remember, from day to day, what I did the preceding day.

I regret exceedingly the action of the Democratic Convention in regard to slavery. The proposed action of Mr. Warner, after the 4th & 5th resolutions were withdrawn especially did not go far enough. To reject them was going, in my judgment, very far wrong. I do not pretend to determine what is best under the circumstances, to be done. To me, at a distance, it does not appear that the Convention by refusing to adopt Mr. Warner's resolutions, intended to pronounce against the Proviso: but merely to determine that opinions either way on that question should not be made a test. The resolutions actually adopted, in my construction of them, cover all the ground I maintain, and all that is necessary, as Senators from the South here admit — nay assert — to secure the final abolition of slavery throughout the land. On the other hand, a man has only to say that no power over any question relating to slavery has been “clearly given” to Congress and the resolutions become as meaningless as any lump of dough than can well be prepared. Now under these circumstances it may be that Judge Wood will give to these resolutions the construction I do myself. If he does, (and I think that construction will be sanctioned by a majority of the democracy of Ohio, so great, that no division will be needed to ascertain the fact) what are we to do then? What will be the effect of a separate nomination under these circumstances? These things should be considered. All I can say is I will go with the Free Democracy, provided it maintains in good faith its position in the Free Democracy, by adhering, honestly and earnestly to the Columbus Platform. I will, under no circumstances, commit myself to any position in which I shall be obliged to vindicate the course & action of Beaver, Blake &, I am sorry to add, Randall. I do not think that course right, and, not thinking it right, I cannot defend it. Nor will I, under any circumstances, be committed, either by my own action or by that of those with whom I act, to the standstill theories & measures of conservative whigism.

I see that the Standard undertakes the vindication of Blake. That vindication, of course, implies censure on yourself and Swift. What is the meaning of this? Does Mr. Gale write these articles? If so, who are his counsellors? In my judgment, Mr. Blake's course cannot be vindicated. Without any reference to any stipulation of any kind the facts are enough. He was elected Senator by Swift's vote. That vote Swift had publicly declared he would give to no man who would not recognize Johnson. Mr. Blake did recognize Johnson as the Senator from Hamilton County. He went further he voted for the Democratic candidate for clerk. The Senate was full and was organized. Then Mr. Blake undertook to recognize Broadwell as Senator from the First District of Hamilton County. By doing this he introduced a 37th Senator against the Constitution, against the Law, and, by doing so, disorganized the Senate and arrested the course of Legislation. Now this is enough. There is no possible escape from the charge of misconduct in any allegation that there was an arrangement in pursuance of which he recognized Johnson, & breach of which on the part of the democrats justified him in recognizing Broadwell. If he recognized Johnson, without believing that the action of the Senate had decided him to be entitled prima facie to his seat or believing himself that he had that right, then he violated his sense of duty to be speaker. If he recognized him, under the belief that he was entitled of right or by decision made in any way, then he could not recognize another without violating that conviction.

You say something of the necessity of my having an organ. I want no organ. I want no support except so far as the Cause of Freedom may be advanced by it. I am exceedingly desirous to have that cause adequately represented by the Press. I am ready to contribute my full proportion to expense of supporting such a press. At Cincinnati we could have the Nonpareil, if we had an Editor. But I know nobody competent except yourself, and you decline going. We have a paper at Columbus; but I wish it were a daily for the Session, and, more strongly, that it might be edited with a more thorough knowledge of the practical workings of our cause. I wish you were its editor, Gale & Cleveland still being proprietors & Gale associate Editor. I would gladly contribute my full proportion to that object, & perhaps you would be as useful at Columbus as at Cincinnati. Again we ought to have a Daily here & must have one, if we are to have another National Contest: and I am ready to contribute my full proportion to that. Would you take the Editorial chair at Columbus? Miller writes me you wd. What say Gale & Cleveland? What our friends in the House. If I give $100 can the balance needed be obtained?

Let me hear from you soon — very soon. What was the result of the Medina & Summit Conference with our Freesoil Friends? Is there any foundation for the representation that the Free Democrats in the House approve of the course of Randall & Blake in the Senate?

SOURCE: Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1902, Vol. 2, p. 197-9

Wednesday, August 16, 2017

Diary of Gideon Welles: Friday, August 28, 1863

The Rebels are demoralized and discouraged, yet have not the manly resolution to confess it. Great is the tyranny of public opinion in all this land of ours, and little is the individual independence that is exercised. Men surrender their honest convictions to the dictates of others, often of less sense and ability than themselves. The discipline and mandates of party are omnipotent, North as well as South. Toombs of Georgia publishes a letter in which he speaks with freedom and boldness of the wretched condition of affairs among the Rebels, and of the ruin that is before them. This is audacity rather than courage. Toombs is a malcontent. Scarcely a man has contributed more than Toombs to the calamities that are upon us, and I am glad to see that he is aware of the misery which he and his associates have inflicted on the country. I have ever considered him a reckless and audacious partisan, an unfit leader in public affairs, and my mind has not changed in regard to him. Toombs, however, was never a sycophant.

Was at the navy yard with E[dgar] and F[ox] to examine the Clyde, one of the fast boats purchased by the Rebels in England, which was captured by our blockaders.

SOURCE: Gideon Welles, Diary of Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Navy Under Lincoln and Johnson, Vol. 1: 1861 – March 30, 1864, p. 428

Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes to Sardis Birchard, January 4, 1863

Camp Reynolds, Near Gauley, Virginia, January 4, 1863.

Dear Uncle: — First of all, my arm gives me no trouble at all ordinarily. Getting on or off from a horse, and some efforts remind me once in a while that it is not quite as good as it was. Perhaps it never will be, but it is good enough, and gives me very little inconvenience.

I am learning some of your experience as to the necessity of overseeing all work. I find I must be out, or my ditches are out of shape, too narrow or wide, or some way wrong, and so of roads, houses, etc., etc. We are making a livable place of it. I put off my own house to the last. Fires are now burning in it, and I shall occupy it in a day or two. It is a double log cabin, two rooms, eighteen by twenty each, and the open space under the same roof sixteen by eighteen; stone fireplaces and chimneys. I have one great advantage in turning a mudhole into a decent camp. I can have a hundred or two men with picks, shovels, and scraper, if I want them, or more, so a day's work changes the looks of things mightily. It is bad enough at any rate, but a great improvement.

We have rumors of heavy fighting in Tennessee and at Vicksburg, but not enough to tell what is the result. I hope it will be all right. I tell Dr. Joe to bring out Lucy if he thinks best, and I will go home with her.

Sincerely,
R. B. Hayes.
S. BlBCHARD.

SOURCE: Charles Richard Williams, editor, Diary and Letters of Rutherford Birchard Hayes, Volume 2, p. 385-6

Diary of 1st Sergeant John L. Ransom: June 22, 1864

The washing business progresses and is prosperous. One great trouble is, it is run too loose and we often get no pay. Battese, while a good worker, is no business man, and will do anybody's washing on promises, which don't amount to much. Am not able to do much myself, principally hanging out the clothes; that is. laying the shirt on one of the tent poles and then watching it till dry. All day yesterday I lay under the “covered” in the shade, hanging on to a string which was tied to the washing. If I saw a suspicious looking chap hanging around with his eyes on the washed goods, then gave a quick jerk and in she comes out of harm's way. Battese has paid for three or four shirts lost in this way, and one pair of pants. Pays in bread. A great many Irish here, and as a class, they stand hardships well. Jimmy Devers losing heart and thinks he will die. Capt. Wirtz has issued another order, but don't know what it is — to the effect that raiding and killing must be stopped, I believe. Being unable to get around as I used to, do not hear the particulars of what is going on, only in a general way. New men coming in, and bodies carried out. Is there no end but dying?

SOURCE: John L. Ransom, Andersonville Diary, p. 69-70

Diary of John Beauchamp Jones: June 29, 1863

There is no confirmation of the report of the fall of Vicksburg, but it may be so; nor is it certain that we have advanced to Harrisburg, but it is probable.

Gen. D. H. Hill writes (on Saturday) from Petersburg that 40,000 of the enemy could not take Richmond; but this may be fishing for the command. He says if Gen. Dix comes this way, he would make him a subject of the cartel of exchange which he (Dix) had a hand in negotiating.

J. M. Botts writes, from his farm in Culpepper, that our men are quartered on his premises, and do as much injury as a hostile army could. He is neutral. They pay him ten cents per day for the grazing of each horse.

The Commissary-General is again recommending the procuring of bacon from within the enemy's lines, in exchange for cotton. Why not get meat from the enemy's country for nothing?
Hon. R. M. T. Hunter writes to the Secretary of War to let the Quartermaster-General alone, that he is popular with Congress, and that his friends are active. It might be dangerous to remove him; the President had better commission him a brigadier-general. He says Judge Campbell wants the President to go to Mississippi; this, Mr. H. is opposed to. Mr. H. is willing to trust Johnston, has not lost confidence in him, etc. And he tells the Secretary to inform the President how much he (H.) esteems him (the President).

The New York Times publishes an account of one of their raids on the Peninsula, below this city, as follows:

“Within the past three days a most daring raid has been made into one of the richest portions of the enemy's country, and the success was equal to the boldness of the undertaking.

“The expedition, which was conducted by both land and water, was commanded by Col. Kilpatrick. It started from the headquarters of Gen. Keyes on Wendesday, and returned yesterday. In the interim the Counties of Matthews and Gloucester were scoured. All the warehouses containing grain were sacked, the mills burned, and everything that could in any way aid the rebels were destroyed or captured. Three hundred horses, two hundred and fifty head of cattle, two hundred sheep, and one hundred mules, together with a large number of contrabands, were brought back by the raiders.

“The rebel farmers were all taken by surprise. They had not expected a demonstration of the kind. Not only were they made to surrender everything that could be of the least use to us, but they were compelled to be silent spectators to the destruction of their agricultural implements.”

No doubt we shall soon have some account in the Northern papers of our operations in this line, in their country.

SOURCE: John Beauchamp Jones, A Rebel War Clerk's Diary at the Confederate States Capital, Volume 1, p. 364-5

Diary of 1st Lieutenant Lemuel A. Abbott: Wednesday, December 14, 1864

Has been quite warm and comfortable all day; dull in camp, and no news from Generals Sherman or Thomas; got an order to fix up quarters this morning which will do the men good as it will occupy their minds; are getting out timber now; shall be glad when my hut is fixed; am tired of changing about so much; wrote to Jim Burnham this evening; expected to go on duty this morning.

SOURCE: Lemuel Abijah Abbott, Personal Recollections and Civil War Diary, 1864, p. 240

Diary of 1st Lieutenant Lemuel A. Abbott: Thursday, December 15, 1864

Very warm and comfortable all day; am on duty in the fort; have a guard of one Sergeant, three Corporals and thirty-six men; duty easy; rumors from General Thomas this evening but nothing reliable; got a letter from Cousin Pert to-day; no news from Oakdale, Mass.; was very sorry to learn of G. B. Putnam's death.

SOURCE: Lemuel Abijah Abbott, Personal Recollections and Civil War Diary, 1864, p. 240

Diary of 1st Lieutenant Lemuel A. Abbott: Friday, December 16, 1864

Warm and pleasant; trains busy drawing hut timber; was relieved from guard by the One Hundred and Thirty-eighth Pennsylvania Infantry; am not feeling well; received a letter from David Mower and have answered it; all well in Vermont; Captain H. H. Dewey and Lieutenant Daniel Foster, Tenth Vermont, reported for duty this morning from City Point; have been ill in hospital there; had an undress parade this evening; good news from Thomas. Lieutenant Alexander Wilkey starts for home in the morning.

SOURCE: Lemuel Abijah Abbott, Personal Recollections and Civil War Diary, 1864, p. 240

Diary of 1st Lieutenant Lemuel A. Abbott: Saturday, December 17, 1864

Fair, comfortable day; men busy putting up quarters; shall commence my hut when the men finish theirs ; good news from Generals Sherman and Thomas this evening; have written Dr. J. H. Jones this evening; southeast storm brewing; cannonading towards Petersburg to-night; nothing unusual.

SOURCE: Lemuel Abijah Abbott, Personal Recollections and Civil War Diary, 1864, p. 242

Diary of 1st Lieutenant Lemuel A. Abbott: Sunday, December 18, 1864

Quite comfortable all day. Colonel W. W. Henry's resignation came back last night accepted; will leave at 7.40 o'clock a. m. to-morrow; officers gave him a farewell supper to-night. Captain G. B. Damon comes back to the regiment to-night from the division staff. I have been recommended for the Captaincy of Company G overslaughing several other officers, provided he is made Major; all's quiet.

SOURCE: Lemuel Abijah Abbott, Personal Recollections and Civil War Diary, 1864, p. 242

Tuesday, August 15, 2017

Captain Charles Wright Wills: January 4, 1863

January 4, 1863.

There I quit, for we received orders to get ready at once to march to Jackson, Tenn. The colonel ordered me to take charge of the train (wagons) and with my company guard it through by the wagon road, while the other nine companies went through by railroad. The regiment got off that evening, but I was delayed until the 31st, when just as I got my company into line to start a couple of the finest houses in town took fire, and burned down. The colonel commanding the 15th Illinois Infantry, which had just arrived, put me under arrest and stationed a guard around my company, but after an hour's detention, my strong protestations against arrest and my arguments in favor of the honorable acquital of my men of the charges, induced him to allow us to proceed on our way. By Lieutenant Mattison's personal smartness the train was taken from the road in the p. m., while I was ahead selecting camping grounds for the night, and I did not get with it for two days, which I traveled alone. The distance is about 90 miles. The first night I stayed at Holly Springs and slept in the bed which General Pemberton, Van Dorn and Lovell of the Rebel Army, and Hamilton, of ours, in turn occupied. 'Twas in the room they occupied for headquarters. Mrs. Stricklin, the lady of the house, was charming. Her husband is a major in the Rebel Army. I ate my New Year's dinner at Dr. Ellis'. He was not at home, but his lady treated me very politely, and I give her credit for having the noblest face I ever saw on woman. She is a sister of Rebel General Hindman. Stayed at a private house at Lagrange that night (Mrs. Cockes) and heard some delightful music made by a daughter. Saw seven mounted Rebels on the 2d, and felt uneasy traveling alone, but got through safe to Bolivar. Here I caught up with my train which I thought was behind. When we started my men were on foot, when I caught up with them at Bolivar, 38 of them were mounted on horses or mules. Stayed at Medon Station last night, and arrived here at 3 this p. m., all safe. I have to go back to Holly Springs to-morrow to testify against the 109th for disloyalty.

SOURCE: Charles Wright Wills, Army Life of an Illinois Soldier, p. 140

Diary of Sergeant Major Luman Harris Tenney: July 20, 1863

Went on to Tupper's Plains. Rebs got around and made for 8 Miles Island near the shore. Moved rapidly. At Harrisonville and Rutland the hungry boys were satisfied. Little rain. About dusk the report came back that the rebs, 1800, had surrendered. Duke, Col. Morgan, Ward and other field officers. Had quite a visit with some. Seemed queer to see our Ky. boys hunting our brothers and cousins. Marched to Cheshire and camped. Rained during the night.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 80

Diary of Sergeant Major Luman Harris Tenney: July 21, 1863

About noon the Scioto came up with rations. Drew one day. Went to a kind old gentleman's for dinner. Thede and I went up and saw the prisoners. Boys went out and got good apples. Volunteers, 1000, went on with Shackleford and Woodford after Morgan. Would go but for horse.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 80

Diary of Sergeant Major Luman Harris Tenney: July 22, 1863

Another chat with some rebels. Some intelligent, but impudent. Makes the boys mad that they are not deprived of their plunder. Drew and issued three days' rations. Managed to get a saddle. Day passed very quietly. Waiting for transports, they say.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 80

Diary of Sergeant Major Luman Harris Tenney: July 23, 1863

Thede got on order a secesh saddle. Gave up my mare to Dr. Smith. Gave me an old plug. Traded her for a pretty brown mare, $25 to boot. Jeff gave us a shave all round. Apples. Cleaned revolvers. Traded and gave $5 for a silver mounted one. Ordered to march tomorrow with Com. horses to Cinn.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 80

Diary of Sergeant Major Luman Harris Tenney: July 24, 1863

After breakfast drew 5 days' rations. Regt. moved about 9 A. M. with horses. Got permission from Major to be absent from Regt. for 5 days. Going around with S. R. Nettleton. Thede goes across too. Shall send my mare home. Passed through Pomeroy, Rutland and Athens. Fed and rested.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 80

Diary of Sergeant Major Luman Harris Tenney: July 25, 1863

Breakfasted at a farmer's. Off at 7, towards Lancaster, 45 miles. At Chancey got some horses shod. Rained considerably. Road lay along the canal. Two miles out of Lancaster, rested and remained till after dinner. A very pleasant family by the name of McLeary.

SOURCE: Frances Andrews Tenney, War Diary Of Luman Harris Tenney, p. 80

Monday, August 14, 2017

Extraordinary Speech From A Southern Congressman

Hon. Emerson Etheridge, a member of Congress from Tennessee, recently made a speech in Indiana, and a writer to the republican press of the North gives its substance as follows:

“He exhorted his political friends to cast away all ideas of supporting a ‘Bell’ ticket in Indiana, and give their united support to Lincoln.  He advised that all efforts of the united opposition should be directed to the overthrow of the democratic party, which could be only be done by defeating their candidates as many States as possible.  He said if he lived in Indian he would vote for Lincoln, but as he lived in a State where his own ticket had a chance, he would vote for Bell.  This advice from a man of his position held by Mr. Etheridge in his party has great weight with the members of that party in Indiana.”

— Published in The Abbeville Press, Abbeville, South Carolina, Friday Morning, November 9, 1860, p. 2

Organization Of Minute Men.

We are indebted to the Secretary, Jno. G. Baskin, Esq., for a very full report of the proceedings of a large and enthusiastic meeting of the citizens of the upper portion of the District at Wickliffs Store, on Friday last, for the purpose of organizing a company of Minute Men, which we regret that we are unable to publish in our present issue.

On motion of H. M. Prince, Esq., Capt. Jno. Brownlee was called to the chair; and appropriate speeches were delivered by Col. Marshall; Gen. McGowan, Gen. Smith and W. D. Wilkes, Esq.

The names of forty-six active members, and twenty honorary members were soon obtained.

On motion of J. W. Black, a committee of five was appointed by the chair to draft a Constitution and By-Laws for the Company.  The Committee were J. W. Black, J. J Cunningham, G. B. Clinkscales, M. B. Latimer, Wm. Wickliff.

On motion of J. J. Cunningham, a committee of five was appointed by the chair to obtain signatures to the active list of Minute Men.  The Committee were Wm. Wickliff, W. J. Robertson, Jas Magee, John Wakefield and W. Prince.

J. J. Cunningham moved that this meeting adjourn to meet at the same place on Saturday the 17th inst., at 10 o’clock A.M., to receive the reports of the Committee; adopt a Constitution, and elect officers.  It was unanimously agreed to.

The Chairman then invited the company to partake of a Pic Nic Dinner, which had been prepared in an adjacent grove – two separate tables had been prepared for the gentlemen and ladies, and were bountifully supplied with the best of the land.

— Published in The Abbeville Press, Abbeville, South Carolina, Friday Morning, November 9, 1860, p. 2

Mrs. Emily Thompson’s Advertisement for the Return of Emeline Chapman, a Runaway Slave, September 6, 1856

$100 REWARD. — RAN AWAY from the subscriber on Saturday, the 30th of August, 1856, my SERVANT WOMAN, named EMELINE CHAPMAN, about 26 years of age; 5 feet 4 inches high; rather slender; quite dark-colored; speaks quick and short when spoken to and stammers some; with two children, a female about 2 years and 4 months old, the same color of the mother; the other a male, about 6 or 7 months old, quite bright colored. I will give the above reward if taken outside the District of Columbia, or $50 if taken within the limits of the District — in either case to be secured in jail or brought home to me, so that I get them again.

MRS. EMILY THOMPSON,
Capitol Hill, Washington, D. C.

S6-3t

— Published in The Baltimore Sun, Baltimore Maryland, Saturday Morning, September 6, 1856, p. 3

Mrs. Emily Thompson’s Advertisement for the Return of Emeline Chapman, a Runaway Slave, after August 30, 1856

$300 REWARD. — RAN AWAY from the subscriber on Saturday, the 30th of August, 1856, my SERVANT WOMAN, named EMELINE CHAPMAN, about 25 years of age; quite dark, slender built, speaks short, and stammers some; with two children, one a female about two and a half years old; the other a male, seven or eight months old, bright color. I will give the above reward if they are delivered to me in Washington.

MRS. EMILY THOMPSON,
Capitol Hill, Washington, D. C.

s23-TU, Th&st§

SOURCE: William Still, The Underground Railroad: A Record of Facts, Authentic Narratives, Letters &c., p. 157

George L. Stearns, September 20, 1858

Boston, Sept 20, 1858.

My Dear Friend, — Yours of yesterday is at hand. I should prefer Saturday at seven P. M., if that is agreeable to Mr. Parker and yourself. If you decide on that time, please notify Mr. Parker and Dr. Howe. If you do not write me to change the time, I shall be there without further notice.

SOURCE: Franklin B. Sanborn, The Life and Letters of John Brown, p. 515

Senator Salmon P. Chase to Edward S. Hamlin, January 12, 1850

Parkeville, Near Woodbury N. J.  Jany 12, 1850.

My Dear Hamlin, I have had no fair chance to write to you for the last few days, having been living at a Hotel, while looking out for permanent rooms. I at last found quarters to my mind — that is as much to my mind as I could expect — and on Thursday had my things moved into them. Wood's room adjoins mine & Carter's is on the floor below, and we three are the sole inmates of the House. We are to take our meals at the [illegible], where there is a goodly lot of freesoil democrats. Wood is as true a man as I ever met with. Carter is as true as Wood in his purposes, but is not quite so clear in his action. We should have a first rate delegation, if we only had Brinkerhoff, in the place of John K. Miller: for [sic] he would keep Hoagland right and prevent any wavering among the rest.

The Senate adjourned on Thursday till Monday, and I came off immediately, without having taken possession of my new quarters, to see Mrs Chase, and, travelling all night, reached here yesterday morning, after 12. I found her still improving, and, though not out of danger, with a better prospect of recovery than heretofore. The Doctor is confident that there is as yet no lesion of the lungs, and thinks if the inflammation of the tubercles can be arrested before disorganization, a cure can be effected. He seems to be much encouraged, and I have great confidence in him.

You will see that I made a little speech on Monday. I dont know how the Reporters will dress it up, but if they do no better by it than they have done by the telegraphic abstract, it will not do me much credit. It was an offhand affair — intended, only, as first attempt on a small scale by way of feeling my way. It stirred up the Southerners wonderfully.

You will see that the slaveholders have achieved another triumph in the House in the election of a clerk. The Whigs gave the slaveholders a slaveholding speaker; and in return the slaveholders have given the Whigs a slaveholding clerk. The slaveholders who would have 2/3d. rule at Baltimore, find at Washington that even a plurality rule will suffice. When will submission have an end? Evidently the northern men have been studying Hosey Biglow.

We begin to think its nater
      To take sarse and not be riled:—
Who'd expect to see a tater
      All on eend at bein' biled?

But perhaps I wrong them. I see that on the ballot for the slaveholding sergeant at arms only 88 voted for the caucus nominee. Some of them were, doubtless, men who were unwilling to drain the absolute dregs of the cup of humiliation. However there is one comfort and that not a small one in the election of Campbell. That ineffable doughface Forney is defeated, and that too by the votes of the very men for whose suffrages he degraded himself. The Southerners have kicked their own dog, and who had a better right to do it.

I see Wood is nominated. The Platform I have not yet seen: but the despatch to Disney which brought the news of Wood's nomination, predicted the adoption of the resolutions of ’47. As the despatch came from Lilley — one of our Hamilton Anti-proviso men — I hope it may turn out that a better platform was constructed. What will our Free Democracy now do? I am particularly solicitious to know their views. I trust nothing will be done precipitately or rashly. We must take a course which will secure the ascendency of our principles, and men who may be relied on for a staunch and fearless advocacy of them. The next Legislature will be more important to us than a Governor: and concert and harmony with the Old Line Democracy is necessary to secure the ascendancy of our principles and men in that body. I cannot help thinking that this session of Congress will go far make the whole Northern Democracy thoroughly anti slavery. If they can stand such insults as are daily heaped on them by their southern associates I am greatly mistaken.

P. S. I neglected to mention that some efforts are made to procure the rejection of Perry? (Columbus Postmaster) What do you think of him? My impressions and feelings are all favorable. If you think fit, it may not be amiss to suggest to him, the expediency of forwarding a representation of some influential Democrats & free Democrats endorsing him as fit and capable. No rejections will be made on mere grounds of difference in political views: but some will try to make opposition to the war a test of disqualification.

SOURCE: Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1902, Vol. 2, p. 195-7

Diary of Gideon Welles: Tuesday, August 25, 1863

The Rebel accounts of things at Charleston speak of Sumter in ruins, its walls fallen in, and a threatened assault on the city. I do not expect immediate possession of the place, for it will be defended with desperation, pride, courage, Nullification chivalry, which is something Quixotic, with the Lady Dulcineas to stimulate the Secession heroes; but matters are encouraging.

Thus far, the Navy has been the cooperating force, aiding and protecting the army on Morris Island.

SOURCE: Gideon Welles, Diary of Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Navy Under Lincoln and Johnson, Vol. 1: 1861 – March 30, 1864, p. 427

Sunday, August 13, 2017

Address of Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes to to the 23rd Ohio Infantry, January 4, 1863

Comrades: — We have just closed an eventful year in our soldier life. During the year 1862 the Twenty-third Regiment has borne well its part in the great struggle for the Union. The splendid fight of Company C at Clark's Hollow, the daring, endurance, and spirit of enterprise exhibited in the capture of Princeton and Giles Court-house, the steadiness, discipline, and pluck which enabled you, in the face of an overwhelming force of the enemy, to retreat from your advanced position without panic or confusion and almost unharmed, the conspicuous and acknowledged achievements of the regiment at the battles of South Mountain and Antietam, amply justify the satisfaction and pride which I am confident we all feel in the regiment to which we belong.

We recall these events and scenes with joy and exultation. But as we glance our eyes along the shortened line, we are filled with sadness that we look in vain for many forms and faces once so familiar! We shall not forget them. We shall not forget what they gave to purchase the good name which we so highly prize. The pouring out of their lives has made the tattered old flag sacred.

Let us begin the new year — this season to us of quiet and of preparation — with a determination so to act that the future of our regiment shall cast no shadow on its past, and that those of us who shall survive to behold the opening of another new year shall regard with increased gratification the character, history, and name of the gallant old Twenty-third!

SOURCE: Charles Richard Williams, editor, Diary and Letters of Rutherford Birchard Hayes, Volume 2, p. 384-5